Integrin-mediated adhesion to the vascular endothelium is an essential step in leukocyte diapedesis. We show that the chemokines 10-kDa inflammatory protein (IP10) and monokine induced by IFN (Mig) induce rapid and transient adhesion of human IL-2-stimulated T lymphocytes (IL-2 T cells) to immobilized integrin ligands through their receptor CXCR3, which is selectively expressed on activated T cells. Induction of adhesion by IP10 and Mig was already observed at subnanomolar concentrations and was maximal at 5-10 nM, resulting in three- to sixfold increase in adhesion of IL-2 T cells over background. No effect was seen with resting naive/memory T cells which lack CXCR3 and migration responses to IP10 and Mig. Both chemokines are produced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) upon stimulation with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. These chemokines induce IL-2 T cell adhesion also when captured on the surface of endothelial cells. Under conditions of flow, IL-2 T cells roll and rapidly adhere to IP10/Mig-expressing HUVEC, and anti-CXCR3 mAb treatment reduces arrest and firm adhesion. This is the first study that shows chemokine-induced adhesion in activated memory/effector T cells which represent the fraction of T cells that are selectively mobilized in inflammation. The critical role of IFN-gamma as inducer of IP10/Mig production in HUVEC indicates that these chemokines are essential mediators of effector T cell recruitment to IFN-gamma-dependent pathologies.
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