CDw50 differentiation antigen is a molecule broadly expressed on hematopoetic cells but not on other cells. Previous experiments showed that CDw50 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) inhibited primary mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). To understand the function of CDw50 better, we purified it and obtained peptide sequence. At the same time, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3, the third ligand of lymphocyte function-associated molecule 1, was described by mAb and subsequent cDNA cloning. Immunochemical, functional, and protein sequencing studies show that ICAM-3 and CDw50 are the same glycoprotein, a 120-kDa surface molecule with presumably an important role in the immune responses.
TGA), within exon 12. Both genetic abnormalities were also detected at the genomic level, and affect the restriction pattern of their corresponding genes, thus enabling the detection of the mutant alleles among healthy heterozygous alleles in family studies. The identification of two new LAD CD18 alleles, either carrying a non-sense mutation (ZJO) or a partial gene deletion (HS), further illustrates the heterogeneity of the genetic alterations in LAD."]" data-sheets-userformat="[null,null,8961,[null,0],null,null,null,null,null,null,null,3,0,null,null,null,9]">Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by heterogeneous mutations within the gene encoding the common beta subunit (CD18) of the three leukocyte integrins LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18), Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18), and p150,95 (CD11c/CD18). Based on the level of expression of CD18 on patient leukocytes, two phenotypes of LAD have been defined (severe and moderate) which correlate with the severity of the disease. We have investigated the molecular basis of the disease in two unrelated severe patients (HS and ZJO). Both patients share a complete absence of CD18 protein precursor and cell surface expression, but they differ in the level of CD18 mRNA, which is normal in HS and undetectable by Northern blot in ZJO. Determination of the primary structure of the patient HS CD18 mRNA revealed a 10-base pair deletion between nucleotides 190-200 (CD18 exon 3), which eliminates residues 41-43 and causes a frameshift into a premature termination codon 17 base pairs downstream from the deleted region. The 10-base pair frameshift deletion maps to a region of the CD18 gene where aberrant mRNA processing has been detected in HS and two other unrelated LAD patients. In the ZJO patient, amplification of lymphoblast CD18 mRNA demonstrated the presence of a non-sense mutation in the third nucleotide of the triplet encoding Cys534 (TGC-->TGA), within exon 12. Both genetic abnormalities were also detected at the genomic level, and affect the restriction pattern of their corresponding genes, thus enabling the detection of the mutant alleles among healthy heterozygous alleles in family studies. The identification of two new LAD CD18 alleles, either carrying a non-sense mutation (ZJO) or a partial gene deletion (HS), further illustrates the heterogeneity of the genetic alterations in LAD.
Based on protein sequence, we have isolated a cDNA for intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3), the most recently defined counter-receptor for lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). Expression of the cDNA yields a product that reacts with monoclonal antibody to ICAM-3 and functions as a ligand for LFA-1. The deduced 518-amino acid sequence of the predicted mature protein defines a highly glycosylated type I integral membrane protein with five immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains. The five Ig-like domains of ICAM-3 are highly homologous with those of human ICAM-1 (52% identity) and human ICAM-2 (37% identity).
The intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is used as a cellular receptor by 90% of human rhinoviruses (HRVs). Chimeric immunoadhesin molecules containing extracellular domains of ICAM-1 and constant regions of immunoglobulins (Igs) were designed in order to determine the effect of increased valency, Ig isotype, and number of ICAM-1 domains on neutralization and disruption of rhinovirus structure. These immunoadhesins include ICAM-1 amino-terminal domains 1 and 2 fused to the hinge and constant domains of the heavy chains of IgA1, IgM, and IgG1 (IC1-2D/IgA, -/IgM, and -/IgG). In addition, all five extracellular domains were fused to IgA1 (IC1-5D/IgA). Immunoadhesins were compared with soluble forms of ICAM-1 containing five and two domains (sICAM-1 and ICI-2D, respectively) in assays of HRV binding, infectivity, and conformation. In prevention of HRV plaque formation, IC1-5D/IgA was 200 times and IC1-2D/IgM and IC1-2D/IgA were 25 and 10 times more effective, respectively, than ICAM-1. The same chimeras were highly effective in inhibiting binding of rhinovirus to cells and disrupting the conformation of the virus capsid, as demonstrated by generation of approximately 65S particles. The results show that the number of ICAM-1 domains and a flexible Ig hinge are important factors contributing to the efficacy of neutralization. The higher efficiency of chimeras that bound bivalently in disrupting HRV was attributed to higher binding avidity. The IC1-5D/IgA immunoadhesin was effective at nanomolar concentrations, making it feasible therapy for rhinovirus infection.
We have expressed in Escherichia coli the two N-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). The first 188 residues of ICAM-1 were expressed with an N-terminal methionine (MP188) or as a maltose-binding fusion protein which was cleaved with factor Xa (XP188). After refolding, both MP188 and XP188 were active in binding to the leukocyte integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1, which has previously been shown to bind to the N-terminal Ig domain of ICAM-1. The major group of rhinoviruses and malaria-infected erythrocytes bind to distinct sites within the first Ig-like domain of ICAM-1. Both MP188 and XP188 bound to malaria-infected erythrocytes; however, only XP188 inhibited human rhinovirus plaque formation. A product (MdQ1P188) with the initiation methionine fused to residue 2, i.e., with glutamine 1 deleted, inhibited plaque formation. MdQ1P188 was able to induce a conformational change of the virus capsid as shown by conversion of 149S particles to 85S particles, whereas MP188 had no effect. These results show that functionally active fragments of ICAM-1 can be produced in E. coli, that glycosylation is not required for ligand binding, and that the N-terminal residue of ICAM-1 is proximal to or part of the human rhinovirus-binding site.
Despite the identification and characterization of several distinct ligands for the leukocyte integrin (CD11/CD18) family of adhesion receptors, little is known about the structural regions on these molecules that mediate ligand recognition. In this report, we use alpha subunit chimeras of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) and p150,95 (CD11c/CD18), and an extended panel of newly generated and previously characterized mAbs specific to the alpha chain of Mac-1 to map the binding sites for four distinct ligands for Mac-1: iC3b, fibrinogen, ICAM-1, and the as-yet uncharacterized counter-receptor responsible for neutrophil homotypic adhesion. Epitopes of mAbs that blocked ligand binding were mapped with the chimeras and used to localize the ligand recognition sites because the data obtained from functional assays with the Mac-1/p150,95 chimeras were not easily interpreted. Results show that the I domain on the alpha chain of Mac-1 is an important recognition site for all four ligands, and that the NH2-terminal and perhaps divalent cation binding regions but not the COOH-terminal segment may contribute. The recognition sites in the I domain appear overlapping but not identical as individual Mac-1-ligand interactions are distinguished by the discrete patterns of inhibitory mAbs. Additionally, we find that the alpha subunit NH2-terminal region and divalent cation binding region, despite being separated by over 200 amino acids of the I domain, appear structurally apposed because three mAbs require the presence of both of these regions for antigenic reactivity, and chimeras that contain the NH2 terminus of p150,95 require the divalent cation binding region of p150,95 to associate firmly with the beta subunit.
Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, is a cell surface glycoprotein with an extracellular domain comprising five immunoglobulin-like domains. Soluble ICAM-1, a recombinant protein truncated at the transmembrane domain, has a rod-like shape, 19 nm long overall, with a characteristic bend 7.6 nm from one end of the molecule. Because the link between domain D2 and domain D3 is proline rich, it has been proposed that the short arm contains domains D1 and D2 and the long arm contains domains D3-D5. We used single-molecule electron microscopy of soluble ICAM-1 decorated with monoclonal antibodies specific for domains D1 and D4 to show that the bend instead lies between domains D3 and D4. Therefore, the short arm lies closer to the plasma membrane, whereas the long arm, containing all the known ligand binding sites on ICAM-1, is positioned toward the target cell surface.
Using flow conditions that simulate those in post capillary venules, we have found that neutrophils attach and roll on a substrate bearing purified E-selectin. E-selectin resembles P-selectin (CD62) with regard to the dependence of attachment efficiency on wall shear stress and selectin density. In contrast, once attached, neutrophils form rolling adhesions on E-selectin that are much stronger than those on P-selectin. Rolling velocities on E-selectin are slower and have less variance than on P-selectin. With increasing shear stress, rolling velocities reach a plateau level that is dependent on E-selectin density, suggesting that the number of receptor-ligand bonds and the bond dissociation rate limit rolling velocity, and that the bonds are not broken by the applied force.
The subcellular localization of Mac-1 was determined in resting and stimulated human neutrophils after disruption by nitrogen cavitation and fractionation on two-layer Percoll density gradients. Light membranes were further separated by high voltage free flow electrophoresis. Mac-1 was determined by an ELISA with monoclonal antibodies that were specific for the alpha-chain (CD11b). In unstimulated neutrophils, 75% of Mac-1 colocalized with specific granules including gelatinase granules, 20% with secretory vesicles and the rest with plasma membranes. Stimulation with nanomolar concentrations of FMLP resulted in the translocation of Mac-1 from secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane, and only minimal translocation from specific granules and gelatinase granules. Stimulation with PMA or Ionomycin resulted in full translocation of Mac-1 from secretory vesicles and gelatinase granules to the plasma membrane, and partial translocation of Mac-1 from specific granules. These findings were corroborated by flow cytometry, which demonstrated a 6-10-fold increase in the surface membrane content of Mac-1 in response to stimulation with FMLP, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, IL-8, leukotriene B4, platelet-activating factor, TNF-alpha, and zymosan-activated serum, and a 25-fold increase in response to Ionomycin. Thus, secretory vesicles constitute the most important reservoir of Mac-1 that is incorporated into the plasma membrane during stimulation with inflammatory mediators.
We report that a subpopulation (10%) of the Mac-1 (CD1 1b/CD18) molecules on activated neutrophils mediates adhesion to ICAM-1 and fibrinogen. We describe a novel mAb (CBRM1/5) that binds to an activation-specific neoepitope on a subset of Mac-1 molecules on neutrophils and monocytes after stimulation with chemoattractants or phorobol esters but does not recognize Mac-1 on resting myeloid cells. CBRM1/5 immunoprecipitates a subpopulation of Mac-1 molecules from detergent lysates of neutrophils, binds to immunoaffinity-purified Mac-1, and localizes to the I domain on the alpha chain of Mac-1. Because CBRM1/5 recognizes a fraction of Mac-1 on activated neutrophils, but still blocks Mac-1-dependent adhesion to fibrinogen and ICAM-1, we suggest that only a small subset of Mac-1 molecules is competent to mediate adhesion.