The leukocyte, or beta2, integrins are heterodimeric cell surface molecules that share a common beta subunit, and have unique alpha subunits. LFA-1 is the predominant beta2 integrin on lymphocytes, and plays an important role in many lymphocyte functions; however, most studies of the cytoplasmic regions of LFA-1 have been performed in transfected epithelial cells, such as COS, in part because no lymphoid cell lines deficient in the LFA-1 alpha subunit have been described. To address structure-function studies of beta2 integrins in relevant cell types, two T lymphoblastoid cell clones that completely lack cell surface LFA-1, J-(beta2).7 and SK-(beta2).7, derived from Jurkat and SKW3, respectively, were prepared by chemical mutagenesis and selection. Biosynthetic labeling and immunoprecipitation showed that the J-(beta2).7 clone did not translate any LFA-1 alpha subunit protein, while the SK-(beta2).7 cells did not synthesize any beta2 subunit protein. Northern blot analysis of poly(A+) RNA from these cells revealed an absence of the corresponding mRNA in each case. By transfection analysis, only the alpha subunit reconstituted LFA-1 expression in the J-(beta2).7 cells, while only the beta subunit restored cell surface LFA-1 expression in the SK-(beta2).7 cells. Functional studies with the parental cell lines, the J-(beta2).7 and SK-(beta2).7 cells, and the transfectants showed that all binding of Jurkat and SKW3 cells to purified ICAM-1 is mediated by LFA-1, and the reconstituted LFA-1 expressed by the J-(beta2).7 and SK-(beta2).7 transfected cells is regulated normally.
Hematopoietic progenitor cells migrate in vitro and in vivo towards a gradient of the chemotactic factor stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) produced by stromal cells. This is the first chemoattractant reported for human CD34+ progenitor cells. Concentrations of SDF-1 that elicit chemotaxis also induce a transient elevation of cytoplasmic calcium in CD34+ cells. SDF-1-induced chemotaxis is inhibited by pertussis toxin, suggesting that its signaling in CD34+ cells is mediated by seven transmembrane receptors coupled to Gi proteins. CD34+ cells migrating to SDF-1 include cells with a more primitive (CD34+/CD38- or CD34+/DR-) phenotype as well as CD34+ cells phenotypically committed to the erythroid, lymphoid and myeloid lineages, including functional BFU-E, CFU-GM, and CFU-MIX progenitors. Chemotaxis of CD34+ cells in response to SDF-1 is increased by IL-3 in vitro and is lower in CD34+ progenitors from peripheral blood than in CD34+ progenitors from bone marrow, suggesting that an altered response to SDF-1 may be associated with CD34 progenitor mobilization.
C5a > IL-8 > Gro-alpha, in agreement with previous results in neutrophils on the Ca2+-mobilizing response. These results may have important implications for the behavior of these cell types in inflammatory sites."]" data-sheets-userformat="[null,null,8961,[null,0],null,null,null,null,null,null,null,3,0,null,null,null,9]">At inflammatory sites in vivo, leukocytes may confront multiple, competing chemoattractive signals. We found significant differences between eosinophils and neutrophils in transendothelial chemotaxis to a chemoattractant diffusing from the lower chamber, when a chemoattractant that binds to another receptor is present at uniform concentration. The transendothelial migration of eosinophils to FMLP, C5a, RANTES, or MCP-3 was totally inhibited by the presence of the homologous chemoattractant, and only RANTES and MCP-3 showed mutual inhibition. C5a and to a lesser extent FMLP chemokinetically stimulated migration to RANTES and MCP-3, without stimulating random migration. Results with neutrophils contrasted. The presence of FMLP not only abrogated neutrophil transmigration to FMLP but also strongly decreased chemotaxis to C5a, IL-8, and Gro-alpha. Similarly, C5a inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis to IL-8 and Gro-alpha. IL-8 almost totally abrogated chemotaxis to Gro-alpha, but Gro-alpha only moderately inhibited chemotaxis to IL-8. Neither IL-8 nor Gro-alpha significantly inhibited transmigration to FMLP or C5a. Actin polymerization in eosinophils and neutrophils was desensitized by the same combinations of chemoattractants that desensitized chemotaxis. We conclude that eosinophils have at least three noninterfering receptor-signal transduction pathways for chemotaxis and actin polymerization. In contrast, the signaling pathways for FMLP, C5a, and IL-8/Gro-alpha in neutrophils are heterologously cross-desensitized, with a hierarchy of resistance to competing signals of FMLP > C5a > IL-8 > Gro-alpha, in agreement with previous results in neutrophils on the Ca2+-mobilizing response. These results may have important implications for the behavior of these cell types in inflammatory sites.
Recognition by integrin proteins on the cell surface regulates the adhesive interactions between cells and their surroundings. The structure of the 'I' domain that is found in some but not all integrins, has been determined. However, the only integrin ligands for which structures are known, namely fibronectin and VCAM-1, are recognized by integrins that lack I domains. The intercellular adhesion molecules ICAM-1, 2 and 3 are, like VCAM-1, members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), but they are recognized by an I domain-containing integrin, lymphocyte-function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1, or CD11a/CD18). Here we present the crystal structure of the extracellular region of ICAM-2. The glutamic acid residue at position 37 is critical for LFA-1 binding and is proposed to coordinate the Mg2+ ion in the I domain; this Glu 37 is surrounded by a relatively flat recognition surface and lies in a beta-strand, whereas the critical aspartic acid residue in VCAM-1 and fibronectin lie in protruding loops. This finding suggests that there are differences in the architecture of recognition sites between integrins that contain or lack I domains. A bend between domains 1 and 2 of ICAM-2 and a tripod-like arrangement of N-linked glycans in the membrane-proximal region of domain 2 may be important for presenting the recognition surface to LFA-1. A model of ICAM-1 based on the ICAM-2 structure provides a framework for understanding its recognition by pathogens.
It was previously shown that mutations of integrin alpha4 chain sites, within putative EF-hand-type divalent cation-binding domains, each caused a marked reduction in alpha4beta1-dependent cell adhesion. Some reports have suggested that alpha-chain "EF-hand" sites may interact directly with ligands. However, we show here that mutations of three different alpha4 "EF-hand" sites each had no effect on binding of soluble monovalent or bivalent vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 whether measured indirectly or directly. Furthermore, these mutations had minimal effect on alpha4beta1-dependent cell tethering to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 under shear. However, EF-hand mutants did show severe impairments in cellular resistance to detachment under shear flow. Thus, mutation of integrin alpha4 "EF-hand-like" sites may impair 1) static cell adhesion and 2) adhesion strengthening under shear flow by a mechanism that does not involve alterations of initial ligand binding.
Selectins are a family of lectins that mediate tethering and rolling of leukocytes on endothelium in vascular shear flow. To test the hypothesis that the kinetics and the strength of rolling interactions can be independently varied for different selectin:ligand pairs, we have directly compared all three selectins with regard to distinct measures of selectin-mediated interactions in shear flow: tethering, rolling velocity, and strength of rolling adhesions. At comparable site densities of E-selectin, P-selectin, and the L-selectin counter-receptor CD34, neutrophils tethered with similar efficiency and developed rolling adhesions of similar strength as measured by resistance to detachment. Under the same conditions, neutrophils rolled 7.5- to 10.5-fold faster on CD34 than on E-selectin and P-selectin. These findings suggest that the kinetics of bond dissociation and bond formation are faster for L-selectin than for E- and P-selectin. We also compared the behavior of neutrophils and lymphocytes on the same selectin. Both cell types showed comparable strength of binding to CD34; however, neutrophils rolled with faster velocities than lymphocytes.
We have used immunoprecipitation with mAbs to probe folding during biosynthesis of the beta2 integrin subunit of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18) before and after association with the alphaL subunit. An evolutionarily conserved region is present in the beta2 subunit between amino acid residues 102 and 344. mAbs to one subregion before the conserved region, and two subregions after the conserved domain, immunoprecipitated both the unassociated beta'2 precursor and mature alphaL/beta2 complex, suggesting portions of these subregions are folded before association with alphaL. An activating mAb to the C-terminal cysteine-rich region, KIM127, preferentially bound to the unassociated beta subunit, suggesting that it may bind to an epitope that is in an alphabeta interface in unactivated LFA-1. By contrast, mAbs to five different epitopes in the conserved region did not react with unassociated beta'2 precursor, suggesting that this region folds after alphaL association and is intimately associated with the alphaL subunit in the alphaL/beta2 complex. mAbs to two different epitopes that involve the border between the conserved region and the C-terminal segment, were fully or partially reactive with the beta'2 precursor, suggesting that this region is partially folded before association with alphaL. The findings suggest that the conserved region is a distinct folding and hence structural unit, and is intimately associated with the alpha subunit.
The N-terminal approximately 440 aa of integrin alpha subunits contain seven sequence repeats. These are predicted here to fold into a beta-propeller domain. A homologous domain from the enzyme phosphatidylinositol phospholipase D is predicted to have the same fold. The domains contain seven four-stranded beta-sheets arranged in a torus around a pseudosymmetry axis. The trimeric G-protein beta subunit (G beta) appears to be the most closely related beta-propeller. Integrin ligands and a putative Mg2+ ion are predicted to bind to the upper face of the beta-propeller. This face binds substrates in beta-propeller enzymes and is used by the G protein beta subunit to bind the G protein alpha subunit. The integrin alpha subunit I domain, which is structurally homologous to the G protein alpha subunit, is tethered to the top of the beta-propeller domain by a hinge that may allow movement of the domains relative to one another. The Ca2+-binding motifs in integrin alpha subunits are on the lower face of the beta-propeller.
We have studied the folding during biosynthesis of the lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) alphaL subunit using mAb to epitopes that map to seven different regions within the amino acid sequence. The N-terminal portion of alphaL is predicted to contain a beta-propeller domain, consisting of seven beta-sheets, and an I domain that is predicted to be inserted between beta-sheet 2 and beta-sheet 3 of the beta-propeller. The I domain of alphaL folds before association with the beta2 subunit, as shown by immunoprecipitation of the unassociated alphaL subunit by mAbs specific for four different sequence elements within the I domain. By contrast, the beta-propeller domain is not folded in unassociated alphaL after a chase of as long as 12 h after synthesis, but does fold upon association with beta2. This is shown with mAbs to regions of alphaL, that precede and follow the I domain in the primary structure. A mAb that maps near the junction of the C terminus of the I domain with the beta-propeller domain suggests that this region is partially folded before subunit association. The results show that the I domain and beta-propeller domains fold independently of one another, and suggest that the beta-propeller domain bears an interface for association with the beta subunit.
The mRNA for the seven-transmembrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor fusin/CXCR-4 is expressed in primary mouse astrocyte cultures and the transformed mouse microglial cell line, N9. Cell surface expression of fusin in these cells was confirmed by staining with a polyclonal anti-fusin Ab. The functional capacity of this chemokine receptor was examined by evaluating the calcium responses following stimulation of glial cells with the CXC-chemokine, stromal-derived cell factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha). Both astrocytes and microglial cells mobilized calcium following stimulation with chemically synthesized SDF-1alpha. SDF-1alpha- and carbachol-mediated calcium responses of astrocytes were partially inhibited by treatment with pertussis toxin (PTx), suggesting receptor coupling to a combination of G alpha(i) and other G proteins. In contrast, the calcium responses of microglial cells to SDF-1alpha were completely PTx sensitive, while responses to carbachol stimulation were PTx resistant. The ability of SDF-1alpha to induce glial cell migration was also examined. Synthetic SDF-1alpha was a potent chemoattractant for mouse microglial cells at ligand concentrations of 10 to 500 ng/ml; peak responses were noted at 100 ng/ml. In contrast, astrocytes did not migrate toward a gradient of SDF-1alpha. The failure of SDF-1alpha to induce astrocyte migration was specific, as another chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, triggered astrocyte chemotaxis.
The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 function as coreceptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ cells. During the early stages of HIV infection, viral isolates tend to use CCR5 for viral entry, while later isolates tend to use CXCR4. The pattern of expression of these chemokine receptors on T cell subsets and their regulation has important implications for AIDS pathogenesis and lymphocyte recirculation. A mAb to CXCR4, 12G5, showed partial inhibition of chemotaxis and calcium influx induced by SDF-1, the natural ligand of CXCR4. 12G5 stained predominantly the naive, unactivated CD26(low) CD45RA+ CD45R0- T lymphocyte subset of peripheral blood lymphocytes. In contrast, a mAb specific for CCR5, 5C7, stained CD26(high) CD45RA(low) CD45R0+ T lymphocytes, a subset thought to represent previously activated/memory cells. CXCR4 expression was rapidly up-regulated on peripheral blood mononuclear cells during phytohemagglutinin stimulation and interleukin 2 priming, and responsiveness to SDF-1 increased simultaneously. CCR5 expression, however, showed only a gradual increase over 12 days of culture with interleukin 2, while T cell activation with phytohemagglutinin was ineffective. Taken together, the data suggest distinct functions for the two receptors and their ligands in the migration of lymphocyte subsets through lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. Furthermore, the largely reciprocal expression of CXCR4 and CCR5 among peripheral blood T cells implies distinct susceptibility of T cell subsets to viral entry by T cell line-tropic versus macrophage-tropic strains during the course of HIV infection.
Two mechanisms have been proposed for regulating rolling velocities on selectins. These are (a) the intrinsic kinetics of bond dissociation, and (b) the reactive compliance, i.e., the susceptibility of the bond dissociation reaction to applied force. To determine which of these mechanisms explains the 7.5-11.5-fold faster rolling of leukocytes on L-selectin than on E- and P-selectins, we have compared the three selectins by examining the dissociation of transient tethers. We find that the intrinsic kinetics for tether bond dissociation are 7-10-fold more rapid for L-selectin than for E- and P-selectins, and are proportional to the rolling velocities through these selectins. The durations of pauses during rolling correspond to the duration of transient tethers on low density substrates. Moreover, applied force increases dissociation kinetics less for L-selectin than for E- and P-selectins, demonstrating that reactive compliance is not responsible for the faster rolling through L-selectin. Further measurements provide a biochemical and biophysical framework for understanding the molecular basis of rolling. Displacements of tethered cells during flow reversal, and measurements of the distance between successive pauses during rolling provide estimates of the length of a tether and the length of the adhesive contact zone, and suggest that rolling occurs with as few as two tethers per contact zone. Tether bond lifetime is an exponential function of the force on the bond, and the upper limit for the tether bond spring constant is of the same order of magnitude as the estimated elastic spring constant of the lectin-EGF unit. Shear uniquely enhances the rate of L-selectin transient tether formation, and conversion of tethers to rolling adhesions, providing further understanding of the shear threshold requirement for rolling through L-selectin.
We have studied the pathways that lead to arrest and firm adhesion of rolling PMN on activated, surface-adherent platelets. Stable arrest and adhesion strengthening of PMN on thrombin-stimulated, surface-adherent platelets in flow required distinct Ca2+- and Mg2+-dependent regions of Mac-1 (alphaMbeta2), and involved interactions of Mac-1 with fibrinogen, which was bound to platelets via alphaIIbbeta3. Mac-1 also bound to other unidentified ligands on platelets, which were not intracellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2), heparin, or heparan-sulfate proteoglycans. This was shown by inhibition with mAbs or peptides, by treatment of platelets with heparitinase, and by using platelets with defective alphaIIbbeta3 from a patient with Glanzmann thrombasthenia. Tethering of PMN on platelet ICAM-2 via LFA-1 (alphaLbeta2) was observed, which may facilitate the transition between rolling on selectins and Mac-1-dependent arrest. Arrest and adhesion strengthening was pertussis toxin sensitive and in flow was mainly induced by platelet-activating factor but not through activation of the chemokine receptor CXCR2. In stasis, spreading occurred and the CXCR2 contributed to firm adhesion.
The adhesive interactions of eosinophils with purified E-, P-, and L-selectins; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 molecule; and HUVEC were examined in shear flow. Compared with neutrophils, eosinophils showed markedly less binding to E-selectin, but significantly stronger avidity for P-selectin. Both cell types showed a similar level of tethering and rolling on L-selectin. Eosinophils tethered and arrested abruptly on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. However, some of the tethers were detached within several seconds; this was prevented by stimulation with eotaxin. Eosinophils also showed immediate arrest on HUVEC stimulated with 100 U/ml TNF-alpha for 6 h. Treatment with L-selectin mAb decreased eosinophil accumulation on the HUVEC by abrogating secondary tethers through interactions between flowing and attached eosinophils. mAb to P-selectin but not to E-selectin strongly inhibited primary tethers and accumulation of eosinophils. mAb to the integrin alpha 4 subunit inhibited arrest, induced rolling or detachment of tethered eosinophils, and resulted in partial reduction of eosinophil accumulation. mAb to the integrin beta 2 subunit had only a slight effect, whereas treatment with mAb to the integrin alpha 4 and beta 2 subunits together abolished rolling interactions as well as arrest, and thus almost totally inhibited eosinophil accumulation. Our data indicate that P-selectin, but not E-selectin, is directly involved in eosinophil tethering on inflammatory endothelium while L-selectin mainly mediates intereosinophil interaction. VLA-4 has a crucial role in eosinophil arrest, and arrest is enhanced by exposure to chemoattractants.
The leukocyte integrin alpha L beta 2 (LFA-1) is important in transendothelial migration. Since it is not fully understood how LFA-1 mediates transmigration, we studied the effects of alpha L and beta 2 cytoplasmic domain mutants that alter LFA-1 adhesiveness for intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) induced LFA-1-dependent transendothelial migration of Jurkat and J-beta 2.7 transfectants coexpressing the MCP-1 receptor CCR2B and wild-type alpha L. No transendothelial chemotaxis was observed with truncation mutants of the alpha L cytoplasmic tail, which rendered LFA-1 constitutively active or locked LFA-1 in a low avidity state unresponsive to cellular activation. Moreover, transendothelial chemotaxis of lymphoblastoid SLA transfectants was abolished by truncation of the beta 2 cytoplasmic domain, but not by mutation of its TTT motif, which is important in phorbol ester-induced adhesion. These data indicate that transmigration may require both alpha L and beta 2 cytoplasmic domains. We further show that MCP-1-induced transendothelial chemotaxis of PBMC was inhibited by sustained activation of LFA-1 with Mn2+ or a stimulatory mAb to beta 2. Dimeric soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 also reduced transendothelial chemotaxis of PBMC. Taken together, our data suggest that transendothelial chemotaxis of mononuclear cells may involve dynamic changes in LFA-1 avidity.
Antibodies immobilized on the wall of a flow chamber can support leukocyte rolling in shear flow. IgM mAb to Lewis(x) (CD15) and sialyl Lewis(x) (CD15s), which are carbohydrate antigens related to selectin ligands, plus mAb to CD48 and CD59, could mediate rolling. IgM and IgG mAb to L-selectin (CD62L), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (CD11a), CD43, intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (CD50), and CD45 mediated only firm adhesion. In contrast to selectins, antibodies supported rolling only within a restricted range of site densities and wall shear stresses, outside of which firm adhesion or detachment occurred. When wall shear stress was increased, rolling velocity increased rapidly for antibodies but not for selectins. The kinetics of dissociation from the substrate of transiently tethered cells also increased more rapidly as a function of shear stress for antibodies than for selectins. These comparisons emphasize a number of remarkable features of selectins, including the lack of development of firm adhesion, and suggest that specialized molecular or cellular mechanisms must be required to explain their ability to support rolling over a wide range of environmental variables.