Publications by Year: 1998

Bleul, C.C., Schultze, J.L. & Springer, T.A. B lymphocyte chemotaxis regulated in association with microanatomic localization, differentiation state, and B cell receptor engagement. J. Exp. Med. 187, 5, 753-762 (1998).Abstract

Migration of mature B lymphocytes within secondary lymphoid organs and recirculation between these sites are thought to allow B cells to obtain T cell help, to undergo somatic hypermutation, to differentiate into effector cells, and to home to sites of antibody production. The mechanisms that direct migration of B lymphocytes are unknown, but there is evidence that G protein-coupled receptors, and possibly chemokine receptors, may be involved. Stromal cell- derived factor (SDF)-1alpha is a CXC chemokine previously characterized as an efficacious chemoattractant for T lymphocytes and monocytes in peripheral blood. Here we show with purified tonsillar B cells that SDF-1alpha also attracts naive and memory, but not germinal center (GC) B lymphocytes. Furthermore, GC B cells could be converted to respond to SDF-1alpha by in vitro differentiation into memory B lymphocytes. Conversely, the migratory response in naive and memory B cells was significantly reduced after B cell receptor engagement and CD40 signaling. The receptor for SDF-1, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), was found to be expressed on responsive as well as unresponsive B cell subsets, but was more rapidly downregulated on responsive cells by ligand. Finally, messenger RNA for SDF-1 was detected by in situ hybridization in a layer of cells surrounding the GC. These findings show that responsiveness to the chemoattractant SDF-1alpha is regulated during B lymphocyte activation, and correlates with positioning of B lymphocytes within a secondary lymphoid organ.

Wang, C.Y., et al. Cardiac graft intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and interleukin-1 expression mediate primary isograft failure and induction of ICAM-1 in organs remote from the site of transplantation. Circ. Res. 82, 7, 762-772 (1998).Abstract

During the first few hours after heart transplantation, the occurrence of graft failure is unpredictable and devastating. An explosive cascade of inflammatory events within the reperfused graft vasculature is likely to be mediated, at least in part, by the local expression of the leukocyte adhesion receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54). Furthermore, although proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) are known to autoinduce their own (and ICAM-1) expression in vitro, there are no data to identify their functional in vivo cross talk in the setting of isograft transplantation. To determine the role of ICAM-1 in primary graft failure, we used an isogeneic vascularized model of heterotopic cardiac transplantation. ICAM-1 mRNA and protein increased in grafts during the early posttransplant period and were predominantly localized in the endothelium. The functional significance of this was established using donor hearts obtained from either ICAM-1-deficient (ICAM-1 -/-) or control (ICAM-1 +/+) mice. ICAM-1 +/+ grafts exhibited increased neutrophil infiltration, reduced left ventricular compliance, and poorer survival than did ICAM-1 -/- grafts. Increased ICAM-1 expression was not limited to ICAM-1 +/+ grafts but also occurred in unmanipulated recipient organs located remote from the site of surgery (but only after transplantation of ICAM-1 +/+, not ICAM-1 -/-, cardiac grafts). This expression of ICAM-1 in remote organs appeared to be triggered by IL-1alpha released from the graft, because (1) in situ hybridization revealed increased IL-1 mRNA within cells of the reperfused graft, including myocytes and endothelial cells; (2) ICAM-1 expression in remote organs coincided with a significant increase in serum levels of IL-1alpha after transplantation of ICAM-1 +/+ grafts; both remote organ ICAM-1 expression and IL-1alpha levels were blunted by implantation of ICAM-1 -/- grafts; and (3) remote organ ICAM-1 expression and neutrophil infiltration and IL-1 levels could be blocked by the administration of an IL-1 receptor antagonist. These data demonstrate an apparent positive-feedback loop in which local ICAM-1 and IL-1 expression leads to a mutual amplification of each other's expression within the reperfused graft, promulgating inflammatory events that are likely to be an important cause of primary cardiac graft failure. Because IL-1 receptor blockade reduces the IL-1-mediated autoinduction of IL-1, reduces the expression of ICAM-1 in both the graft and remote organs, and improves graft survival, it may provide a new and effective strategy to prevent the occurrence of primary cardiac graft failure.

Kitayama, J., Mackay, C.R., Ponath, P.D. & Springer, T.A. The C-C chemokine receptor CCR3 participates in stimulation of eosinophil arrest on inflammatory endothelium in shear flow. J. Clin. Invest. 101, 9, 2017-2024 (1998).Abstract

Chemokines are widely hypothesized to stimulate firm adhesion of leukocytes on endothelium in shear flow. Thus far, this has been demonstrated experimentally for exogenously added chemoattractants, but not for those released by endothelium. We found that human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC) stimulated with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma secreted eosinophil chemoattractants into the culture supernatant. This material induced transendothelial chemotaxis, stimulated eosinophil binding to purified intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and augmented binding to purified vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in a 3-min static assay. Chemotaxis and stimulation of adhesion were abrogated completely by the pretreatment of eosinophils with an mAb to the C-C chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3). Eosinophils accumulated efficiently on HUVEC stimulated with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in shear flow at 1.5 dyn/cm2. CCR3 mAb slightly but significantly reduced eosinophil arrest and accumulation, by preventing development of firm adhesion by some of the tethered eosinophils, so that they detached within 30 s after the initial tethering. In the presence of mAb to the alpha4 integrin subunit, the effect of CCR3 mAb was more prominent, and approximately half of eosinophil arrest and accumulation was abolished. Inhibition by CCR3 mAb in the presence of beta2 integrin mAb was similar to that in control eosinophils. This is the first evidence that endothelial cell-derived chemokines can activate firm adhesion through alpha4 and beta2 integrins even in the presence of shear flow.

Piali, L., et al. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 mediates rapid and shear-resistant adhesion-induction of effector T lymphocytes by the chemokines IP10 and Mig. Eur. J. Immunol. 28, 3, 961-972 (1998).Abstract

Integrin-mediated adhesion to the vascular endothelium is an essential step in leukocyte diapedesis. We show that the chemokines 10-kDa inflammatory protein (IP10) and monokine induced by IFN (Mig) induce rapid and transient adhesion of human IL-2-stimulated T lymphocytes (IL-2 T cells) to immobilized integrin ligands through their receptor CXCR3, which is selectively expressed on activated T cells. Induction of adhesion by IP10 and Mig was already observed at subnanomolar concentrations and was maximal at 5-10 nM, resulting in three- to sixfold increase in adhesion of IL-2 T cells over background. No effect was seen with resting naive/memory T cells which lack CXCR3 and migration responses to IP10 and Mig. Both chemokines are produced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) upon stimulation with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. These chemokines induce IL-2 T cell adhesion also when captured on the surface of endothelial cells. Under conditions of flow, IL-2 T cells roll and rapidly adhere to IP10/Mig-expressing HUVEC, and anti-CXCR3 mAb treatment reduces arrest and firm adhesion. This is the first study that shows chemokine-induced adhesion in activated memory/effector T cells which represent the fraction of T cells that are selectively mobilized in inflammation. The critical role of IFN-gamma as inducer of IP10/Mig production in HUVEC indicates that these chemokines are essential mediators of effector T cell recruitment to IFN-gamma-dependent pathologies.

Petruzzelli, L., Maduzia, L. & Springer, T.A. Differential requirements for LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 and LFA-1-mediated cell aggregation. J. Immunol. 160, 9, 4208-4216 (1998).Abstract

Cellular adhesion through the beta2 integrin lymphocyte function-associated Ag (LFA)-1 is a complex event involving activation, ligand binding, and cell shape changes that ultimately result in enhanced adhesion. In this report we define requirements for ligand binding and post receptor signaling by comparing two mechanisms of activation of LFA-1: 1) inside-out signaling and 2) direct activation by the beta2 Ab, CBR LFA-1/2. Our results demonstrate that activation of LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1 by CBR LFA-1/2, in contrast to inside-out signaling mechanisms, does not require protein kinase C activation or protein phosphatase 2A activity nor is it affected by agents that interfere with reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Inhibition of protein tyrosine kinase activity does not affect ICAM- binding by either mechanism of activation. However, activation by either mode does require the presence of the beta cytoplasmic domain; deletion of the C-terminal phenylalanine or the five amino acid stretch between 756-762 abolished activation of LFA-1. This, combined with the observation that intracellular energy pools must be preserved, implicates the beta cytoplasmic domain in a key energy-dependent conformational change in LFA-1 that is required to achieve enhanced ligand binding. Post ligand binding events induced by both PMA and Ab stimulation, as measured by homotypic aggregation, require protein tyrosine kinase, phosphatase, and RhoA activities. By examining both ligand binding and aggregation, we have been able to dissect the signaling components critical in the multistep process of LFA-1-mediated cellular adhesion.

Casasnovas, J.M., Stehle, T., Liu, J.-H., Wang, J.-H. & Springer, T.A. A dimeric crystal structure for the N-terminal two domains of ICAM-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 8, 4134-4139 (1998).Abstract

The 3.0-A structure of a 190-residue fragment of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54) reveals two tandem Ig-superfamily (IgSF) domains. Each of two independent molecules dimerizes identically with a symmetry-related molecule over a hydrophobic interface on the BED sheet of domain 1, in agreement with dimerization of ICAM-1 on the cell surface. The residues that bind to the integrin LFA-1 are well oriented for bivalent binding in the dimer, with the critical Glu-34 residues pointing away from each other on the periphery. Residues that bind to rhinovirus are in the flexible BC and FG loops at the tip of domain 1, and these and the upper half of domain 1 are well exposed in the dimer for docking to virus. By contrast, a residue important for binding to Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes is in the dimer interface. The presence of A' strands in both domains 1 and 2, conserved hydrogen bonds at domain junctions, and elaborate hydrogen bond networks around the key integrin binding residues in domain 1 make these domains suited to resist tensile forces during adhesive interactions. A subdivision of the intermediate (I) set of IgSF domains is proposed in which domain 1 of ICAM-1 and previously described I set domains belong to the I1 set and domain 2 of ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 belong to the I2 set.

Casasnovas, J.M., Bickford, J.K. & Springer, T.A. The domain structure of ICAM-1 and the kinetics of binding to rhinovirus. J. Virol. 72, 7, 6244-6246 (1998).Abstract

Fragments of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM- 1) containing only the two most N terminal of its five immunoglobulin SF domains bind to rhinovirus 3 with the same affinity and kinetics as a fragment with the entire extracellular domain. The fully active two-domain fragments contain 5 or 14 more residues than a previously described fragment that is only partially active. Comparison of X-ray crystal structures show differences at the bottom of domain 2. Four different glycoforms of ICAM- 1 bind with identical kinetics.

Nagashima, M., et al. Effects of a monoclonal antibody to P-selectin on recovery of neonatal lamb hearts after cold cardioplegic ischemia. Circulation 98, II391-II398 (1998).Abstract

BACKGROUND: The interaction between endothelium and leukocytes plays a crucial role in ischemia-reperfusion injury. P-selectin, which is expressed on activated endothelium, mediates the first step in leukocyte adherence to the endothelium. This study examined the effects of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against P-selectin on the recovery of cardiac function and myocardial neutrophil infiltration after ischemia.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen blood-perfused, isolated neonatal lamb hearts underwent 2 hours of hypothermic cardioplegic arrest and 2 hours of reperfusion. Immediately before reperfusion, mAb to P-selectin was administered to the perfusate (15 micrograms/mL) in 6 hearts (group P-sel). In control (n = 7), the same volume of saline was added. Isovolumic left ventricular function and coronary blood flow were measured. At 2 hours after reperfusion, myocardial myeloperoxidase activity, an index of neutrophil accumulation, was assayed. At 30 minutes of reperfusion, hearts treated with mAb to P-selectin achieved significantly greater recovery of maximum developed pressure (70 +/- 4% in control versus 77 +/- 2% in group P-sel, P < 0.01), maximum positive first derivative of pressure (dP/dt) (64 +/- 7% in control versus 73 +/- 5% in group P-sel, P < 0.05), and maximum negative dP/dt (61 +/- 6% in control versus 70 +/- 6% in group P-sel, P < 0.05) compared with control. Percent baseline of coronary blood flow was also significantly increased in group P-sel (135 +/- 40% in control versus 205 +/- 43% in group P-sel, P < 0.05). Myocardial myeloperoxidase activity was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in group P-sel (4.7 +/- 3.2) versus control (16.0 +/- 10.1). (Units are change in absorbance/min/g tissue.)
CONCLUSIONS: The functional blockade of P-selectin resulted in better recovery of cardiac function and attenuated neutrophil accumulation during early reperfusion. Strategies to block P-selectin mediated neutrophil adherence may have clinical application in improving myocardial function at early reperfusion.

Oxvig, C. & Springer, T.A. Experimental support for a β-propeller domain in integrin α-subunits and a calcium binding site on its lower surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 9, 4870-4875 (1998).Abstract

Integrins are large, heterodimeric surface molecules of wide importance in cell adhesion. The N-terminal half of all integrin alpha-subunits contains seven weak sequence repeats of approximately 60 amino acids that are important in ligand binding and have been predicted to fold cooperatively into a single beta-propeller domain with seven beta-sheets. We provide evidence supporting this model with a mouse mAb to human Mac-1 (alphaM beta2, CD11b/CD18). This antibody, CBRM1/20, binds to amino acid residues that are in different repeats and are 94 residues apart in the primary structure in the loop between strands 1 and 2 of beta-sheet 5 and in the loop between strands 3 and 4 of beta-sheet 6. The 1-2 loops of beta-sheets 5-7 in integrins have EF hand-like Ca2+-binding motifs. CBRM1/20 binds to Mac-1 in the presence of Ca2+ or Sr2+ with an EC50 of 0.2 mM. Mg2+ or Mn2+ cannot substitute. Antibodies to other epitopes on the Mac-1 beta-propeller domain bind in the absence of calcium. mAb CBRM1/20 does not block ligand binding. Thus, the region on the lower surface of the beta-propeller domain to which mAb CBRM1/20 binds does not bind ligand and, furthermore, cannot bind other integrin domains, such as those of the beta-subunit.

Springer, T.A. An extracellular β-propeller module predicted in lipoprotein and scavenger receptors, tyrosine kinases, epidermal growth factor precursor, and extracellular matrix components. J. Mol. Biol. 283, 4, 837-862 (1998).Abstract

An abundant, widely dispersed, extracellular sequence repeat that contains a consensus YWTD motif is shown here to occur in groups of six contiguous repeats. Thirteen lines of evidence, including experimental and computational data, predict with p<3x10(-9) that the repeats do not form tandem domains, but rather each group of six repeats folds into a compact beta-propeller structure. The six beta-sheets are arranged about a 6-fold pseudosymmetry axis, and each repeat contributes loops to the faces surrounding the pseudosymmetry axis. Seven different endocytic receptors that contain from one to eight YWTD beta-propeller domains act as lipoprotein, vitellogenin, and scavenger receptors. In the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), the many mutations in familial hypercholesterolaemia that map to the YWTD domain can now be interpreted. In the extracellular matrix component nidogen, the YWTD domain functions to bind laminin. Three YWTD domains and interspersed fibronectin type III (FN3) domains constitute almost the entire extracellular domain of the sevenless and c-ros receptor tyrosine kinases. YWTD domains often are bounded by epidermal growth factor (EGF) modules, including in the EGF precursor itself. YWTD beta-propellers have a circular folding pattern that brings neighboring modules into close proximity, and may have important consequences for the architecture of multi-domain proteins.

Ma, Q., et al. Impaired B-lymphopoiesis, myelopoiesis, and derailed cerebellar neuron migration in CXCR4- and SDF-1-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 16, 9448-9453 (1998).Abstract

The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1, SDF-1, is an important regulator of leukocyte and hematopoietic precursor migration and pre-B cell proliferation. The receptor for SDF-1, CXCR4, also functions as a coreceptor for T-tropic HIV-1 entry. We find that mice deficient for CXCR4 die perinatally and display profound defects in the hematopoietic and nervous systems. CXCR4-deficient mice have severely reduced B-lymphopoiesis, reduced myelopoiesis in fetal liver, and a virtual absence of myelopoiesis in bone marrow. However, T-lymphopoiesis is unaffected. Furthermore, the cerebellum develops abnormally with an irregular external granule cell layer, ectopically located Purkinje cells, and numerous chromophilic cell clumps of abnormally migrated granule cells within the cerebellar anlage. Identical defects are observed in mice lacking SDF-1, suggesting a monogamous relationship between CXCR4 and SDF-1. This receptor-ligand selectivity is unusual among chemokines and their receptors, as is the function in migration of nonhematopoietic cells.

Weber, C. & Springer, T.A. Interaction of very late antigen-4 with VCAM-1 supports transendothelial chemotaxis of monocytes by facilitating lateral migration. J. Immunol. 161, 12, 6825-6834 (1998).Abstract

The transient regulation of very late antigen (VLA)-4 avidity by CC chemokines may promote chemotaxis of monocytes across VCAM-1-bearing barriers, whereas late and prolonged activation of VLA-5 may mediate subsequent localization in the extracellular matrix. We demonstrate that interactions of VLA-4 with VCAM-1, fibronectin, or a 40-kDa fragment but not a 120-kDa fragment of fibronectin supported the lateral random migration of isolated blood monocytes induced by CC chemokines, termed chemokinesis. This effect was optimal at intermediate substrate concentrations. Moreover, coimmobilization of VCAM-1 with ICAM-1 allowed better migration than ICAM-1 alone. Chemokinesis on VCAM-1 appeared to be associated with transient regulation of VLA-4 avidity by CC chemokines, given that locking VLA-4 in a high avidity state markedly inhibited migration and the locomotion rate was inversely correlated with the adhesive strength of VLA-4 to VCAM-1 following stimulation with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Induction of VCAM-1 expression by endothelial activation with IL-4 improved chemokinesis and lateral migration toward a monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 or a monocyte inflammatory protein-1alpha gradient on endothelium and increased transendothelial chemotaxis of monocytes by a VLA-4-dependent mechanism. In contrast, endothelial activation with IL-4 did not affect the time required for diapedesis of monocytes itself. Hence, VCAM-1 may facilitate transendothelial chemotaxis by supporting lateral migration of attached monocytes along endothelium.

Alon, R., Chen, S., Fuhlbrigge, R., Puri, K.D. & Springer, T.A. The kinetics and shear threshold of transient and rolling interactions of L-selectin with its ligand on leukocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 20, 11631-11636 (1998).Abstract

The kinetics of rolling and transient adhesions through selectins may depend on the kinetics and mechanical properties of the selectin:ligand bond, as well as on cellular properties including receptor-anchoring to the cell membrane and cytoskeleton. Kinetics are known to depend on the selectin and may also be ligand dependent. Here, we study the kinetics of transient and rolling interactions of leukocytes with L-selectin immobilized on a substrate. Remarkably, all properties examined are similar to those seen when the sidedness is opposite, i.e., when the L-selectin ligand is on the substrate and when the ligand is isolated from HEV rather than present on leukocytes. The similar properties include rolling velocity, a threshold shear stress above 0.4 dyn/cm2 required to support rolling, a k degreesoff of 7.0 to 6.8 s-1 for the L-selectin tether bond, and a mechanical bond length of 0.24 to 0.20 A. Our results argue against a model in which L-selectin shedding mediates rolling. Furthermore, the fast and force-resistant kinetic properties suggest that L-selectin is specialized dynamically for tethering leukocytes to vessel walls and adherent leukocytes.

Clark, R.A., Fuhlbrigge, R.C. & Springer, T.A. L-selectin ligands that are O-glycoprotease-resistant and distinct from MECA-79 antigen are sufficient for tethering and rolling of lymphocytes on human high endothelial venules. J. Cell Biol. 140, 3, 721-731 (1998).Abstract

During the process of lymphocyte recirculation, lymphocytes bind via L-selectin to sulfated sialyl-Lewisx (sLex)-containing carbohydrate ligands expressed on the surface of high endothelial venules (HEV). We have examined the expression of sLex on HEV using a panel of mAbs specific for sLex and sLex-related structures, and have examined the function of different sLex-bearing structures using an in vitro assay of lymphocyte rolling on HEV. We report that three sLex mAbs, 2F3, 2H5, and CSLEX-1, previously noted to bind with high affinity to glycolipid-linked sLex, vary in their ability to stain HEV in different lymphoid tissues and bind differentially to O-linked versus N-linked sLex on glycoproteins. Treatment of tissue sections with neuraminidase abolished staining with all three mAbs but slightly increased staining with MECA-79, a mAb to a sulfation-dependent HEV-associated carbohydrate determinant. Treatment of tissue sections with O-sialoglycoprotease under conditions that removed the vast majority of MECA-79 staining, only partially reduced staining with the 2F3 and 2H5 mAbs. Using a novel rolling assay in which cells bind under flow to HEV of frozen tissue sections, we demonstrate that a pool of O-sialoglycoprotease-resistant molecules is present on HEV that is sufficient for attachment and rolling of lymphocytes via L-selectin. This interaction is not inhibited by the mAb MECA-79. Furthermore, MECA-79 mAb blocks binding to untreated sections by only 30%, whereas the sLex mAb 2H5 blocks binding by approximately 60% and a combination of MECA-79 and 2H5 mAb blocks binding by 75%. We conclude that a pool of O-glycoprotease-resistant sLex-like L-selectin ligands exist on human HEV that is distinct from the mucin-associated moieties recognized by MECA-79 mAb. We postulate that these ligands may participate in lymphocyte binding to HEV.

Puri, K.D., Chen, S. & Springer, T.A. Modifying the mechanical property and shear threshold of L-selectin adhesion independently of equilibrium properties. Nature 392, 6697, 930-933 (1998).Abstract

Interactions between adhesion molecules on two different cells differ from interactions between receptors and soluble ligands in that the adhesion molecule interaction (bond) is often subjected to force. It is widely assumed by cell biologists that the 'strength' of a bond is a simple function of the affinity of one adhesion molecule for the other, whereas biophysicists suggest that bonds have 'mechanical properties' that affect their strength. Mechanical properties are a function of the shape of the energy landscape related to bond formation and dissociation, whereas affinity is related only to the net energy change. Mechanical properties determine the amount by which the kinetics and affinity of bonds are altered by applied force. To date there has been no experimental manipulation of an adhesion molecule that has been shown to affect mechanical properties. L-selectin is an adhesion molecule that mediates lymphocyte binding to, and rolling on, high endothelial venules; these are prerequisites for the emigration of lymphocytes from the bloodstream into lymph nodes. Here we report a selective and reversible chemical modification of a mucin-like ligand that alters the mechanical properties of its bond with L-selectin. The effect of force on the rate of bond dissociation, that is, on a mechanical property, is altered, whereas there is little or no effect of the modification on the rate of bond dissociation in the absence of force. Moreover, the puzzling requirement for hydrodynamic shear flow above a threshold level for L-selectin interactions is dramatically altered.

Aoudjit, F., Potworowski, E.F., Springer, T.A. & St-Pierre, Y. Protection from lymphoma cell metastasis in ICAM-1 mutant mice: A posthoming event. J. Immunol. 161, 5, 2333-2338 (1998).Abstract

It has been hypothesized that the intercellular adhesion receptors used by normal cells could also be operative in the spreading of circulating malignant cells to target organs. In the present work, we show that genetic ablation of the ICAM-1 gene confers resistance to T cell lymphoma metastasis. Following i.v. inoculation of LFA-1-expressing malignant T lymphoma cells, we found that ICAM-1-deficient mice were almost completely resistant to the development of lymphoid malignancy compared with wild-type control mice that developed lymphoid tumors in the kidneys, spleen, and liver. Histologic examinations confirmed that ICAM-1-deficient mice, in contrast to wild-type mice, had no evidence of lymphoid infiltration in these organs. The effect of ICAM-1 on T cell lymphoma metastasis was observed in two distinct strains of ICAM-1-deficient animals. Nonetheless, lymphoma cells migrated with the same efficiency to target organs in both normal and ICAM-1-deficient mice, indicating not only that ICAM-1 expression by the host is essential in lymphoma metastasis, but also that this is so at stages subsequent to homing and extravasation into target organs. These results point to posthoming events as a focus of future investigation on the control of metastasis mediated by ICAM-1.

Wang, J.-H. & Springer, T.A. Structural specializations of immunoglobulin superfamily members for adhesion to integrins and viruses. Immunol. Rev. 163, 197-215 (1998).Abstract

The circulation and migration of leukocytes are critical for immune surveillance and immune response to infection or injury. The key step of leukocyte recruitment involves the adhesion between immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) proteins on endothelium and integrin molecules on leukocyte surfaces. Some of the IgSF members are subverted as virus receptors. Four crystal structures of N-terminal two-domain fragments of these IgSF proteins have been determined: intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), ICAM-2, vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1). An acidic residue near the bottom of domain 1 plays a key role in integrin binding. For ICAM-1 and ICAM-2, this glutamic acid residue is located on a flat surface, complementary to the flat surface of the I domain of the integrin to which they bind, lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1). For VCAM-1 and MAdCAM-1, the acidic residue is aspartic acid, and it resides on a protruded CD loop which may be complementary to a more pocket-like structure in the alpha 4 integrins to which they bind, which lack I domains. A number of unique structural features of this subclass of IgSF have been identified which are proposed to consolidate the domain structure to resist force during adhesion to integrins. Different mechanisms are proposed for the different CAMs to present the integrin-binding surface toward the opposing cell for adhesion, and prevent cis interaction with integrins on the same cell. Finally, CD4 and ICAM-1 are compared in the context of ligand binding and virus binding, which shows how human immunodeficiency virus and rhinovirus fit well with the distinct structural feature of their cognate receptors.

Tan, K., et al. The structure of immunoglobulin superfamily domains 1 and 2 of MAdCAM-1 reveals novel features important for integrin recognition. Structure 6, 6, 793-801 (1998).Abstract

BACKGROUND: Mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1) is a cell adhesion molecule that is expressed on the endothelium in mucosa, and guides the specific homing of lymphocytes into mucosal tissues. MAdCAM-1 belongs to a subclass of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), the members of which are ligands for integrins. Human MAdCAM-1 has a unique dual function compared to other members in the same subclass in that it binds both the integrin alpha4beta7, through its two IgSF domains, and a selectin expressed on leukocytes, via carbohydrate sidechains. The structure determination of the two IgSF domains and comparison to the N-terminal two-domain structures of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and ICAM-2) allow us to assess the molecular basis of the interactions between integrins and their preferred ligands.
RESULTS: The crystal structure of a fragment containing the two IgSF domains of human MAdCAM-1 has been determined to 2.2 A resolution. The structure of MAdCAM-1 reveals two separate integrin-recognition motifs. The key integrin-binding residue, Asp42, resides in the CD loop of domain 1; a buried arginine residue (Arg70) plays a critical role in maintaining the conformation of this loop. The second binding site is associated with an unusual long D strand in domain 2. The D and E strands extend beyond the main body of the domain, forming a negatively charged beta ribbon unique to MAdCAM-1. This ribbon is located on the same face as the key aspartate residue in domain 1, consistent with evidence that it is involved in integrin binding.
CONCLUSIONS: The structural comparison of MAdCAM-1 to other members of the same IgSF subclass reveals some interesting features. Firstly, MAdCAM-1, like VCAM-1, has the key integrin-binding residue located on the protruding CD loop of domain 1 and binds to an integrin that lacks an I domain. This is in contrast to ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 where the key residue is located at the end of the C strand on a flat surface and which bind to integrins that contain I domains. Secondly, architectural differences in the CD loops of MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 cause an 8 A shift in position of the critical aspartate residue, and may partly determine their binding preference for different integrins. Finally, the unusual charge distribution of the two-domain fragment of MAdCAM-1 is predicted to orient the molecule optimally for integrin binding on the top of its long mucin-like stalk.

Lu, C., Oxvig, C. & Springer, T.A. The structure of the β-propeller domain and C-terminal region of the integrin αM subunit. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 24, 15138-15147 (1998).Abstract

The alphaM subunit of integrin Mac-1 contains several distinct regions in its extracellular segment. The N-terminal region has been predicted to fold into a beta-propeller domain composed of seven beta-sheets each about 60 amino acid residues long, with the I-domain inserted between beta-sheets 2 and 3. The structure of the C-terminal region is unknown. We have used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as probes to study the dependence of the structure of different regions of the alphaM subunit on association with the beta2 subunit in the alphaM/beta2 heterodimer. All of the mAbs to the I-domain immunoprecipitated the unassociated alphaM precursor and reacted with the alphaM subunit expressed alone on the surface of COS cells. By contrast, four mAbs to the beta-propeller domain did not react with the unassociated alphaM precursor nor with the uncomplexed alphaM subunit expressed on COS cell surface. The four mAbs were mapped to three subregions in three different beta-sheets, making it unlikely that each recognized an interface between the alpha and beta subunits. These results suggest that folding of different beta-propeller subregions is coordinate and is dependent on association with the beta2 subunit. The segment C-terminal to the beta-propeller domain, residues 599-1092, was studied with nine mAbs. A subset of four mAbs that reacted with the alphaM/beta2 complex but not with the unassociated alphaM subunit were mapped to one subregion, residues 718-759, and five other mAbs that recognized both the unassociated and the complexed alphaM subunit were localized to three other subregions, residues 599-679, 820-882, and 943-1047. This suggests that much of the region C-terminal to the beta-propeller domain folds independently of association with the beta2 subunit. Our data provide new insights into how different domains in the integrin alpha and beta subunits may interact.

Roth, S.J., et al. Transendothelial chemotaxis of human α/β and γ/δ T lymphocytes to chemokines. Eur. J. Immunol. 28, 1, 104-113 (1998).Abstract

Two subpopulations of human T lymphocytes expressing different antigen receptors, alpha/beta and gamma/delta, emigrate into inflamed tissues in distinctive patterns. We compared the transmigration of alpha/beta and gamma/delta T cells to C-C and C-X-C chemokines using an in vitro transendothelial chemotaxis assay. The C-C chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta stimulated similar, dose-dependent chemotaxis of purified gamma/delta T cells, whereas MCP-1, RANTES, and MIP-1alpha produced greater chemotaxis of purified alpha/beta T cells than MIP-1beta. In contrast, the C-X-C chemokines interleukin (IL)-8 and interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) did not promote chemotaxis of either alpha/beta or gamma/delta T cells. Three gamma/delta T cell clones with differing CD4 and CD8 phenotypes also migrated exclusively to C-C chemokines. Phenotypic analysis of mononuclear cells that transmigrated from an input population of unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells confirmed the results with purified gamma/delta T cells. Our data demonstrate that human peripheral blood alpha/beta and gamma/delta T cells can transmigrate to MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta, and suggest that both T lymphocyte subpopulations share the capacity to emigrate in response to C-C chemokines during inflammation.