Wall shear stress in postcapillary venules varies widely within and between tissues and in response to inflammation and exercise. However, the speed at which leukocytes roll in vivo has been shown to be almost constant within a wide range of wall shear stress, i.e., force on the cell. Similarly, rolling velocities on purified selectins and their ligands in vitro tend to plateau. This may be important to enable rolling leukocytes to be exposed uniformly to activating stimuli on endothelium, independent of local hemodynamic conditions. Wall shear stress increases the rate of dissociation of individual selectin-ligand tether bonds exponentially (, ) thereby destabilizing rolling. We find that this is compensated by a shear-dependent increase in the number of bonds per rolling step. We also find an increase in the number of microvillous tethers to the substrate. This explains (a) the lack of firm adhesion through selectins at low shear stress or high ligand density, and (b) the stability of rolling on selectins to wide variation in wall shear stress and ligand density, in contrast to rolling on antibodies (). Furthermore, our data successfully predict the threshold wall shear stress below which rolling does not occur. This is a special case of the more general regulation by shear of the number of bonds, in which the number of bonds falls below one.
We report that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is required for the retention of B lineage and granulocytic precursors within fetal liver and bone marrow microenvironment. In CXCR4-deficient embryos, pro-B cells are present in blood but hardly detectable in liver; myeloid cells are elevated in blood and reduced in liver compared to wild-type embryos. Mice reconstituted with CXCR4-deficient fetal liver cells have reduced donor-derived mature B lymphocytes in blood and lymphoid organs. The numbers of pro-B and pre-B cells are reduced in bone marrow and abnormally high in blood. Granulocytic cells are reduced in bone marrow but elevated and less mature in the blood. B lineage and granulocytic precursors are released into the periphery in absence of CXCR4.
For efficient ligand binding, integrins must be activated. Specifically, a conformational change has been proposed in a ligand binding domain present within some integrins, the inserted (I) domain [Lee, J., Bankston, L., Arnaout, M. & Liddington, R. C. (1995) Structure (London) 3, 1333-1340]. This proposal remains controversial, however, despite extensive crystal structure studies on the I domain [Lee, J., Bankston, L., Arnaout, M. & Liddington, R. C. (1995) Structure (London) 3, 1333-1340; Liddington, R. & Bankston, L. (1998) Structure (London) 6, 937-938; Qu, A. & Leahy, D. J. (1996) Structure (London) 4, 931-942; and Baldwin, E. T., Sarver, R. W., Bryant, G. L., Jr., Curry, K. A., Fairbanks, M. B., Finzel, B. C. , Garlick, R. L., Heinrikson, R. L., Horton, N. C. & Kelly, L. L. (1998) Structure (London) 6, 923-935]. By defining the residues present in the epitope of a mAb against the human Mac-1 integrin (alphaMbeta2, CD11b/CD18) that binds only the active receptor, we provide biochemical evidence that the I domain itself undergoes a conformational change with activation. This mAb, CBRM1/5, binds the I domain very close to the ligand binding site in a region that is widely exposed regardless of activation as judged by reactivity with other antibodies. The conformation of the epitope differs in two crystal forms of the I domain, previously suggested to represent active and inactive receptor. Our data suggests that conformational differences in the I domain are physiologically relevant and not merely a consequence of different crystal lattice interactions. We also demonstrate that the transition between the two conformational states depends on species-specific residues at the bottom of the I domain, which are proposed to be in an interface with another integrin domain, and that this transition correlates with functional activity.
The crystal structure of intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2) revealed significant differences in the presentation of the critical acidic residue important for integrin binding between I and non-I-domain integrin ligands. Based on this crystal structure, we mutagenized ICAM-2 to localize the binding site for the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1). The integrin binding site runs diagonally across the GFC beta-sheet and includes residues on the CD edge of the beta-sandwich. The site is oblong and runs along a flat ridge on the upper half of domain 1, which is proposed to dock to a groove in the I domain of LFA-1, with the critical Glu-37 residue ligating the Mg2+ in the I domain. Previous mutagenesis of ICAM-1 and ICAM-3, interpreted in light of the recently determined ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 structures, suggests similar binding sites. By contrast, major differences are seen with vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), which binds alpha4 integrins that lack an I domain. The binding site on VCAM-1 includes the lower portion of domain 1 and the upper part of domain 2, whereas the LFA-1 binding site on ICAM is confined to the upper part of domain 1.
We compared the chemotactic responsiveness of different subsets of human B lineage cells to stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1). High percentages (30-40% of input) of purified bone marrow progenitors including non-B lineage progenitors, pro-B cells, and pre-B cells migrated to SDF-1alpha, demonstrating that SDF-1 is an efficacious chemoattractant of these cells. Pro-B cells responded optimally to a lower concentration of SDF-1 than other subsets, demonstrating that SDF-1 is a more potent chemoattractant of this subset. A lower percentage (10-15% of input) of mature B lymphocytes migrated to SDF-1alpha than pro-B cells, demonstrating that responsiveness of B lineage cells to SDF-1 decreases during differentiation. Inhibition by anti-CXCR4 mAb demonstrated that migration of B lineage cells to SDF-1 was completely dependent on CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4). Mature B cells expressed higher levels of CXCR4 receptors than uncommitted progenitors and pro-B cells, despite differences in responsiveness to SDF-1. CXCR4 receptors expressed by unresponsive and SDF-1-responsive B cells bound SDF-1alpha with similar affinities (K(D) = 1.7-3.3 x 10(-9) M). Therefore, elements downstream from CXCR4 appear to regulate responsiveness of B cells to SDF-1. We speculate that SDF-1 and CXCR4 direct migration of progenitor cells in microenvironments that promote B lymphopoiesis.
The selective emigration of blood born leukocytes into tissues is mediated, in part by interactions of Ig-like cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs) expressed on vascular endothelium and their cognate ligands, the leukocyte integrins. Within mucosal lymphoid tissues and gastrointestinal sites the mucosal vascular addressin. MAdCAM-1 is the predominant IgCAM, mediating specific lymphocyte homing via interactions with its ligand on lymphocytes, the integrin alpha4beta7. Previous studies have shown that an essential binding motif resides in the first Ig domain of all IgCAMs, containing an acidic residue (D or E) preceded by an aliphatic residue (L or I) that resides in strand C or the CD loop. However, domain swap experiments with MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 have shown a requirement for both Ig domains 1 and 2 for efficient integrin binding. We describe the use of chimeric MAdCAM-1/VCAM-1 receptors and point mutations in MAdCAM-1 to define other sites that are required for binding to the integrin alpha4beta7. We find that, in addition to critical CD loop residues, other regions in both domain one and two contribute to MAdCAM-1/alpha4beta7 interactions, including a buried arginine residue in the F strand of domain one and several acidic residues in a highly extended DE ribbon in domain 2. These mutations, when placed in the recently solved crystal structure of human MAdCAM-1 give insight into the integrin binding preference of this unique receptor.
ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.
We evaluated the relative contribution of ICAM-1 and ICAM-2, known ligands on endothelium for LFA-1 and Mac-1, in spontaneous neutrophil (PMN) transendothelial migration (TEM) across IL-1-activated HUVEC monolayers or TEM induced by C5a or IL-8 across unstimulated HUVEC grown on polycarbonate filters. Adhesion blocking mAb to ICAM-1 [R6.5 F(ab)2] or ICAM-2 [CBR IC2/2 F(ab)2] tended to inhibit TEM under each condition but, in general, inhibition was significant only with both ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 blockade. mAb to LFA-1 partially inhibited migration to C5a or IL-8 across unstimulated HUVEC and inhibition was not altered by additional treatment of HUVEC with mAbs to ICAM-1 and -2. In contrast, with IL-1 HUVEC, mAb to ICAM-1 significantly inhibited this LFA-1-independent TEM. mAb to Mac-1 alone partially inhibited TEM and, when combined with mAb to LFA-1, migration was almost completely blocked with all TEM conditions tested. The contribution of alternate ligands for Mac-1 in mediating Mac-1-dependent but ICAM-1/-2-independent C5a-induced TEM was examined using anti-LFA-1-treated PMN and anti-ICAM-treated resting HUVEC. Addition of RGD peptides, fibronectin, fibrinogen, heparins, collagens alone or in combination, even to heparinase-treated HUVEC, did not inhibit this Mac-1-mediated PMN TEM. The results indicate that: (1) LFA-1 mediates PMN TEM primarily by interaction with ICAM-1 and ICAM-2; (2) ICAM-2 may function in concert with ICAM-1 in this role, especially on unstimulated endothelium, and (3) Mac-1 on PMN also plays a major role in TEM and can utilize yet to be identified ligands distinct from ICAM-1 or -2, especially on unstimulated endothelium.