The leukocyte integrin alpha(X)beta(2) (p150,95) recognizes the iC3b complement fragment and functions as the complement receptor type 4. alpha(X)beta(2) is more resistant to activation than other beta(2) integrins and is inactive in transfected cells. However, when human alpha(X) is paired with chicken or mouse beta(2), alpha(X)beta(2) is activated for binding to iC3b. Activating substitutions were mapped to individual residues or groups of residues in the N-terminal plexin/semaphorin/integrin (PSI) domain and C-terminal cysteine-rich repeats 2 and 3. These regions are linked by a long range disulfide bond. Substitutions in the PSI domain synergized with substitutions in the cysteine-rich repeats. Substitutions T4P, T22A, Q525S, and V526L gave full activation. Activation of binding to iC3b correlated with exposure of the CBR LFA-1/2 epitope in cysteine-rich repeat 3. The data suggest that the activating substitutions are present in an interface that restrains the human alpha(X)/human beta(2) integrin in the inactive state. The opening of this interface is linked to structural rearrangements in other domains that activate ligand binding.
Several distinct regions of the integrin alpha(IIb) subunit have been implicated in ligand binding. To localize the ligand binding sites in alpha(IIb), we swapped all 27 predicted loops with the corresponding sequences of alpha(4) or alpha(5). 19 of the 27 swapping mutations had no effect on binding to both fibrinogen and ligand-mimetic antibodies (e.g. LJ-CP3), suggesting that these regions do not contain major ligand binding sites. In contrast, swapping the remaining 8 predicted loops completely blocked ligand binding. Ala scanning mutagenesis of these critical predicted loops identified more than 30 discontinuous residues in repeats 2-4 and at the boundary between repeats 4 and 5 as critical for ligand binding. Interestingly, these residues are clustered in the predicted beta-propeller model, consistent with this model. Most of the critical residues are located at the edge of the upper face of the propeller, and several critical residues are located on the side of the propeller domain. None of the predicted loops in repeats 1, 6, and 7, and none of the four putative Ca(2+)-binding predicted loops on the lower surface of the beta-propeller were important for ligand binding. The results map an important ligand binding interface at the edge of the top and on the side of the beta-propeller toroid, centering on repeat 3.
The adhesiveness of integrins is regulated through a process termed "inside-out" signaling. To understand the molecular mechanism of integrin inside-out signaling, we generated K562 stable cell lines that expressed LFA-1 (alpha(L)beta(2)) or Mac-1 (alpha(M)beta(2)) with mutations in the cytoplasmic domain. Complete truncation of the beta(2) cytoplasmic domain, but not a truncation that retained the membrane proximal eight residues, resulted in constitutive activation of alpha(L)beta(2) and alpha(M)beta(2), demonstrating the importance of this membrane proximal region in the regulation of integrin adhesive function. Furthermore, replacement of the alpha(L) and beta(2) cytoplasmic domains with acidic and basic peptides that form an alpha-helical coiled coil caused inactivation of alpha(L)beta(2). Association of these artificial cytoplasmic domains was directly demonstrated. By contrast, replacement of the alpha(L) and beta(2) cytoplasmic domains with two basic peptides that do not form an alpha-helical coiled coil activated alpha(L)beta(2). Induction of ligand binding by the activating cytoplasmic domain mutations correlated with the induction of activation epitopes in the extracellular domain. Our data demonstrate that cytoplasmic, membrane proximal association between integrin alpha and beta subunits, constrains an integrin in the inactive conformation.
Integrins are adhesion molecules that convey signals both to and from the cytoplasm across the plasma membrane. In resting cells, integrins in a low affinity state can be activated by 'inside-out signaling', in which signals affecting integrin heterodimer cytoplasmic domains cause a conformational change in the integrin ligand-binding headpiece connected to the membrane by two long, approximately 16 nm stalks. Here we demonstrate a mechanism for conveying a conformational change over the long distance from the plasma membrane to the headpiece. We prepared soluble, alpha5beta1 integrin heterodimer extracellular fragments in which interactions between alpha- and beta-subunit cytoplasmic domains were replaced with an artificial clasp. Release of this C-terminal clasp by specific protease cleavage resulted in an approximately 14 nm separation of the stalks coupled to increased binding to fibronectin. This activation did not require any associated molecules or clustering and was observed with physiological concentrations of divalent cations. These findings suggest that the overall mechanism for integrin inside-out activation involves the spatial separation of the cytoplasmic and/or transmembrane domains.
Integrin beta subunits contain four cysteine-rich repeats in a long extracellular stalk that connects the headpiece to the membrane. Most mAbs to integrin activation epitopes map to these repeats, and they are important in propagating conformational signals from the membrane/cytosol to the ligand-binding headpiece. Sequence analysis of a protein containing only 10 integrin-like, cysteine-rich repeats suggests that these repeats start one cysteine earlier than previously reported. By using the new repeat boundaries, statistically significant sequence homology to epidermal growth factor-like domains is found, and a disulfide bond connectivity of the eight cysteines is predicted that differs in three of four disulfides from a previous prediction of epidermal growth factor-like modules [Berg, R. W., Leung, E., Gough, S., Morris, C., Yao, W.-P., Wang, S.-x., Ni, J. & Krissansen, G. W. (1999) Genomics 56, 169-178]. N-terminally truncated beta2 integrin stalk fragments were well expressed and secreted from 293 T cells when they began at repeat boundaries but not when they began one cysteine earlier or later. Furthermore, peptides that correspond to module 3 or modules 2 + 3 were expressed in bacteria and refolded. The module 2 + 3 fragment was as reactive with three mAbs to activation epitopes as a beta2 fragment expressed in eukaryotic cells, indicating a native fold. Only one residue intervenes between the last cysteine of one module and the first cysteine of the next. This arrangement is consistent with a tight intermodule connection, a prerequisite for signal propagation from the membrane to the ligand binding headpiece.
Dimeric intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) binds more efficiently to lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) than monomeric ICAM-1. However, it is unknown whether dimerization enhances binding simply by providing two ligand-binding sites and thereby increasing avidity, or whether it serves to generate a single "fully competent" LFA-1-binding surface. Domain 1 of ICAM-1 contains both the binding site for LFA-1, centered on residue E34, and a homodimerization interface. Whether the LFA-1-binding site extends across the homodimerization interface has not been tested. To address this question, we constructed four different heterodimeric soluble forms of ICAM-1 joined at the C terminus via an alpha-helical coiled coil (ACID-BASE). These heterodimeric ICAM-1 constructs include, (i) E34/E34 (two intact LFA-1-binding sites), (ii) E34/K34 (one disrupted LFA-1-binding site), (iii) E34/DeltaD1-2 (one deleted LFA-1-binding site), and (iv) K34/K34 (two disrupted LFA-1-binding sites). Cells bearing activated LFA-1 bound similarly to surfaces coated with either E34/K34 or E34/DeltaD1-2 and with an approximately 2-fold reduction in efficiency compared with E34/E34, suggesting that D1 dimerization, which is precluded in E34/DeltaD1-D2, is not necessary for optimal LFA-1 binding. Furthermore, BIAcore (BIAcore, Piscataway, NJ) affinity measurements revealed that soluble open LFA-1 I domain bound to immobilized soluble ICAM-1, E34/E34, E34/K34, and E34/DeltaD1-D2 with nearly identical affinities. These studies demonstrate that a single ICAM-1 monomer, not dimeric ICAM-1, represents the complete, "fully competent" LFA-1-binding surface.
The lineage relationship between short-lived effector T cells and long-lived memory cells is not fully understood. We have described T-GFP mice previously, in which naive and early activated T cells express GFP uniformly, whereas cells that have differentiated into effector cytotoxic T cells selectively lose GFP expression. Here we studied antigen-specific CD8 T cell differentiation using T-GFP mice crossed to the TCR transgenic (Tg) mice P14 (specific for the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein peptide, gp33-41). After activation with antigenic peptide, P14XT-GFP CD8(+) T cells cultured in high-dose IL-2 developed into cells with effector phenotype and function: they were blastoid, lost GFP expression, expressed high levels of activation and effector markers, and were capable of immediate cytotoxic function. In contrast, cells cultured in IL-15 or low-dose IL-2 never developed into full-fledged effector cells. Rather, they resembled memory cells: they were smaller, were GFP(+), did not express effector markers, and were incapable of immediate cytotoxicity. However, they mediated rapid-recall responses in vitro. After adoptive transfer, they survived in vivo for at least 10 weeks and mounted a secondary immune response after antigen rechallenge that was as potent as endogenously generated memory cells. In addition to providing a simple means to generate memory cells in virtually unlimited numbers, our results suggest that effector differentiation is not a prerequisite for memory cell generation.
The cysteine-rich repeats in the stalk region of integrin beta subunits appear to convey signals impinging on the cytoplasmic domains to the ligand-binding headpiece of integrins. We have examined the functional properties of mAbs to the stalk region and mapped their epitopes, providing a structure-function map. Among a panel of 14 mAbs to the beta(2) subunit, one, KIM127, preferentially bound to alpha(L)beta(2) that was activated by mutations in the cytoplasmic domains, and by Mn(2+). KIM127 also bound preferentially to the free beta(2) subunit compared with resting alpha(L)beta(2). Activating beta(2) mutations also greatly enhanced binding of KIM127 to integrins alpha(M)beta(2) and alpha(X)beta(2). Thus, the KIM127 epitope is shielded by the alpha subunit, and becomes reexposed upon receptor activation. Three other mAbs, CBR LFA-1/2, MEM48, and KIM185, activated alpha(L)beta(2) and bound equally well to resting and activated alpha(L)beta(2), differentially recognized resting alpha(M)beta(2) and alpha(X)beta(2), and bound fully to activated alpha(M)beta(2) and alpha(X)beta(2). The KIM127 epitope localizes within cysteine-rich repeat 2, to residues 504, 506, and 508. By contrast, the two activating mAbs CBR LFA-1/2 and MEM48 bind to overlapping epitopes involving residues 534, 536, 541, 543, and 546 in cysteine-rich repeat 3, and the activating mAb KIM185 maps near the end of cysteine-rich repeat 4. The nonactivating mAbs, 6.7 and CBR LFA-1/7, map more N-terminal, to subregions 344-432 and 432-487, respectively. We thus define five different beta(2) stalk subregions, mAb binding to which correlates with effect on activation, and define regions in an interface that becomes exposed upon integrin activation.
Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a CXC chemokine that is believed to be constitutively expressed by stromal cells of numerous tissues. In this report, we demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts and vessels of noninflamed tissues express SDF-1. Unexpectedly, we found that expression of SDF-1 is regulated by inflammation. Expression of SDF-1 by primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts is potently inhibited by activated macrophages via secretion of IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha. Levels of SDF-1 mRNA also decrease in acutely inflamed mouse dermal wounds. We propose that SDF-1 functions as a homeostatic regulator of tissue remodeling, whose expression stabilizes existing dermal architecture.
The destructive pulmonary inflammation associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization is caused, in part, by the production of the chemokine IL-8, which recruits neutrophils into the lung. The Pseudomonas autoinducer, N-3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone (3-O-C12-HSL), is a small lipid-soluble molecule that is essential in the regulation of many P. aeruginosa virulence factors, but little is known about how it affects eukaryotic cells. In this report we demonstrate that 3-O-C12-HSL is a potent stimulator of both IL-8 mRNA and protein from human fibroblasts and epithelial cells in vitro. The IL-8 produced from these 3-O-C12-HSL-stimulated cells was found to be functionally active by inducing the chemotaxis of neutrophils. To determine a mechanism for this IL-8 induction, deletion constructs of the IL-8 promoter were examined. It was found that the DNA region between nucleotides -1481 and -546 and the transcription factor NF-kappaB were essential for the maximal induction of IL-8 by 3-O-C12-HSL. This was confirmed by EMSAs, where 3-O-C12-HSL induced a shift with both AP-2 and NF-kappaB consensus DNA. The activation of NF-kappaB and subsequent production of IL-8 were found to be regulated by a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These findings support the concept that the severe lung damage that accompanies P. aeruginosa infections is caused by an exuberant neutrophil response stimulated by 3-O-C12-HSL-induced IL-8. Understanding the mechanisms of 3-O-C12-HSL activation of lung structural cells may provide a means to help control lung damage during infections with P. aeruginosa.
The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is the primary mechanism for uptake of cholesterol-carrying particles into cells. The region of the LDLR implicated in receptor recycling and lipoprotein release at low pH contains a pair of calcium-binding EGF-like modules, followed by a series of six YWTD repeats and a third EGF-like module. The crystal structure at 1.5 A resolution of a receptor fragment spanning the YWTD repeats and its two flanking EGF modules reveals that the YWTD repeats form a six-bladed beta-propeller that packs tightly against the C-terminal EGF module, whereas the EGF module that precedes the propeller is disordered in the crystal. Numerous point mutations of the LDLR that result in the genetic disease familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) alter side chains that form conserved packing and hydrogen bonding interactions in the interior and between propeller blades. A second subset of FH mutations are located at the interface between the propeller and the C-terminal EGF module, suggesting a structural requirement for maintaining the integrity of the interdomain interface.
We introduced disulfide bonds to lock the integrin alphaLbeta2 I domain in predicted open, ligand binding or closed, nonbinding conformations. Transfectants expressing alphaLbeta2 heterodimers containing locked-open but not locked-closed or wild-type I domains constitutively adhered to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) substrates. Locking the I domain closed abolished constitutive and activatable adhesion. The isolated locked-open I domain bound as well as the activated alphaLbeta2 heterodimer, and binding was abolished by reduction of the disulfide. Lovastatin, which binds under the conformationally mobile C-terminal alpha-helix of the I domain, inhibited binding to ICAM-1 by alphaLbeta2 with wild-type, but not locked-open I domains. These data establish the importance of conformational change in the alphaL I domain for adhesive function and show that this domain is sufficient for full adhesive activity.
We studied interactions in shear flow of cells bearing integrins alpha4beta1 or alpha4beta7 with VCAM-1 and MAdCAM-1 substrates in different divalent cations. Interestingly, Ca(2+) was essential for tethering in flow and rolling interactions through both alpha4 integrins. Mg(2+) promoted firm adhesion of alpha4beta7-expressing cells on MAdCAM-1 but with much lower tethering efficiency in shear flow. The k(off) degrees of 1.28 s(-1) and resistance of the receptor-ligand bond to force (estimated as a bond interaction distance or sigma) for transient tethers on MAdCAM-1 were similar to values for E- and P-selectins. By contrast to results in Ca(2+) or Ca(2+) + Mg(2+), in Mg(2+) the alpha4beta7-MAdCAM-1 k(off) degrees decreased 20-fold to 0.046 s(-1), and the bond was weaker, providing an explanation for the finding of firm adhesion under these conditions. Shear enhanced tethering to MAdCAM-1, thereby contributing to the stability of rolling. Comparisons to selectins demonstrate that the kinetic and mechanical properties of the alpha4beta7 integrin are well suited to its intermediate position in adhesion cascades, in which it bridges rapid rolling through selectins to firm adhesion through beta2 integrins.
While CD4 and the chemokine receptors are the principal receptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other cellular proteins, such as LFA-1, are also involved in HIV infection. LFA-1 and its ligands, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and ICAM-3, can be expressed on the cells infected by HIV, as well as on the HIV virions themselves. To examine the role of LFA-1 expressed on target cells in HIV infection, Jurkat-derived Jbeta2.7 T-cell lines that express either wild-type LFA-1, a constitutively active mutant LFA-1, or no LFA-1 were used. The presence of wild-type LFA-1 enhanced the initial processes of HIV infection, as well as the subsequent replication and transmission from cell to cell. In contrast, the constitutively active LFA-1 mutant failed to promote virus replication and spread, even though this mutant could help HIV enter cells and establish the initial infection. This study clearly demonstrates the contribution of LFA-1 in the different stages of HIV infection. Moreover, not only is LFA-1 expression important for initial HIV-cell interaction, subsequent replication, and transmission, but its activity must also be properly regulated.
We used integrin alphaLbeta2 heterodimers containing I domains locked open (active) or closed (inactive) with disulfide bonds to investigate regulatory interactions among domains in integrins. mAbs to the alphaL I domain and beta2 I-like domain inhibit adhesion of wild-type alphaLbeta2 to intercellular adhesion molecule-1. However, with alphaLbeta2 containing a locked open I domain, mAbs to the I domain were subdivided into subsets (i) that did not inhibit, and thus appear to inhibit by favoring the closed conformation, and (ii) that did inhibit, and thus appear to bind to the ligand binding site. Furthermore, alphaLbeta2 containing a locked open I domain was completely resistant to inhibition by mAbs to the beta2 I-like domain, but became fully susceptible to inhibition after disulfide reduction with DTT. This finding suggests that the I-like domain indirectly contributes to ligand binding by regulating opening of the I domain in wild-type alphaLbeta2. Conversely, locking the I domain closed partially restrained conformational change of the I-like domain by Mn(2+), as measured with mAb m24, which we map here to the beta2 I-like domain. By contrast, locking the I domain closed or open did not affect constitutive or Mn(2+)-induced exposure of the KIM127 epitope in the beta2 stalk region. Furthermore, locked open I domains, in alphaLbeta2 complexes or expressed in isolation on the cell surface, bound to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 equivalently in Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). These results suggest that Mn(2+) activates alphaLbeta2 by binding to a site other than the I domain, most likely the I-like domain of beta2.
ICAM-2 > ICAM-3. The k(on), k(off), and K(D) values for the locked open I domain were within 1.5-fold of values previously determined for the alphaLbeta2 complex, showing that the I domain is sufficient for full affinity binding to ICAM-1. The locked open I domain antagonized alphaLbeta2-dependent adhesion in vitro, lymphocyte homing in vivo, and firm adhesion but not rolling on high endothelial venules. The ability to reversibly lock a protein fold in an active conformation with dramatically increased affinity opens vistas in therapeutics and proteomics."]" data-sheets-userformat="[null,null,8961,[null,0],null,null,null,null,null,null,null,3,0,null,null,null,9]">The integrin alphaLbeta2 has three different domains in its headpiece that have been suggested to either bind ligand or to regulate ligand binding. One of these, the inserted or I domain, has a fold similar to that of small G proteins. The I domain of the alphaM and alpha2 subunits has been crystallized in both open and closed conformations; however, the alphaL I domain has been crystallized in only the closed conformation. We hypothesized that the alphaL domain also would have an open conformation, and that this would be the ligand binding conformation. Therefore, we introduced pairs of cysteine residues to form disulfides that would lock the alphaL I domain in either the open or closed conformation. Locking the I domain open resulted in a 9,000-fold increase in affinity to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which was reversed by disulfide reduction. By contrast, the affinity of the locked closed conformer was similar to wild type. Binding completely depended on Mg(2+). Orders of affinity were ICAM-1 > ICAM-2 > ICAM-3. The k(on), k(off), and K(D) values for the locked open I domain were within 1.5-fold of values previously determined for the alphaLbeta2 complex, showing that the I domain is sufficient for full affinity binding to ICAM-1. The locked open I domain antagonized alphaLbeta2-dependent adhesion in vitro, lymphocyte homing in vivo, and firm adhesion but not rolling on high endothelial venules. The ability to reversibly lock a protein fold in an active conformation with dramatically increased affinity opens vistas in therapeutics and proteomics.
We have studied the principles that govern the formation and dissociation of an adhesive bond between a cell moving in shear flow and a substrate and tested different theories of how force affects bond dissociation. Viscosity relates the kinematics of fluid movement (shear rate, units of time(-1)) to shear stress (units of force/area, the product of shear rate and viscosity). At different medium viscosities, the formation of receptor-ligand bonds between a cell in the flowstream and P-selectin on the vessel wall showed a similar efficiency as a function of shear rate but not of shear stress. Therefore, bond formation was a function of shear rate and hence of the kinematics of receptor and ligand movement. By contrast, the kinetics of bond dissociation was a function of shear stress and hence of force on the bond. The different requirements for bond formation and dissociation allowed dissociation kinetics to be measured at higher forces on the bond by increasing medium viscosity. Data over an extended range of forces on the bond therefore could be collected that enabled five different proposed equations, relating force to bond dissociation, to be compared for fit to experimental data. The relationship proposed by Bell [Bell, G. I. (1978) Science 200, 618-627] fit the data significantly the best and also predicted an off-rate in the absence of force that best matched an independent measurement [Mehta, P., Cummings, R. D. & McEver, R. P. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 32506-32513].
Previous studies have demonstrated dimerization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the cell surface and suggested a role for immunoglobulin superfamily domain 5 and/or the transmembrane domain in mediating such dimerization. Crystallization studies suggest that domain 1 may also mediate dimerization. ICAM-1 binds through domain 1 to the I domain of the integrin alpha(L)beta(2) (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1). Soluble C-terminally dimerized ICAM-1 was made by replacing the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains with an alpha-helical coiled coil. Electron microscopy revealed C-terminal dimers that were straight, slightly bent, and sometimes U-shaped. A small number of apparently closed ring-like dimers and W-shaped tetramers were found. To capture ICAM-1 dimerized at the crystallographically defined dimer interface in domain 1, cysteines were introduced into this interface. Several of these mutations resulted in the formation of soluble disulfide-bonded ICAM-1 dimers (domain 1 dimers). Combining a domain 1 cysteine mutation with the C-terminal dimers (domain 1/C-terminal dimers) resulted in significant amounts of both closed ring-like dimers and W-shaped tetramers. Surface plasmon resonance studies showed that all of the dimeric forms of ICAM-1 (domain 1, C-terminal, and domain 1/C-terminal dimers) bound similarly to the integrin alpha(L)beta(2) I domain, with affinities approximately 1.5--3-fold greater than that of monomeric ICAM-1. These studies demonstrate that ICAM-1 can form at least three different topologies and that dimerization at domain 1 does not interfere with binding in domain 1 to alpha(L)beta(2).