Adhesion of lymphocytes to vascular endothelium is the first event in the passage of lymphocytes into a chronic inflammatory reaction. To investigate molecular mechanisms of T-EC adhesion, monoclonal antibodies (Mab) against T cell surface antigens have been tested for inhibition of binding. Baseline and phorbol ester-stimulated adhesion were strongly inhibited by either Mab 60.3 (reactive with the beta-chain of the LFA-1, OKM1, and p150,95 molecules) or by Mab TS 1/22 (specific for the alpha-chain of LFA-1). Although the increased binding of phorbol ester-stimulated lymphocytes was inhibited by anti-LFA-1 antibody, there was no increased expression of LFA-1 on phorbol ester-stimulated T cells, as determined by FACS analysis. Maximal inhibition of unstimulated and phorbol ester-stimulated T-EC adhesion was seen at Mab concentrations of 1 microgram/ml. In contrast, LPS- and IL 1-enhanced T-EC adhesion were only weakly inhibited by these antibodies. Mab 60.3 and TS 1/22 did not stain either unstimulated EC or LPS- or IL 1-stimulated EC, as measured by FACS analysis; moreover, preincubation of EC alone with these antibodies did not lead to inhibition of T-EC binding. Adhesion was not affected by Mab against the sheep erythrocyte receptor (LFA-2), a nonpolymorphic HLA class 1 framework antigen, or against LFA-3, the alpha-chain of OKM1, or the alpha-chain of p150,95. These results suggest that the mechanism of binding of lymphocytes to unstimulated endothelium differs from that to stimulated endothelium. LFA-1 appears to be an important adhesion-related molecule for binding to unstimulated endothelium. However, the increased lymphocyte adhesion to IL 1- or LPS-stimulated EC observed in these experiments appears to be relatively independent of LFA-1. The increased adhesion to stimulated EC could be due either to an increase in the avidity or the density of the EC receptor molecules ordinarily involved in unstimulated T-EC binding or to the formation of alternative receptors on the stimulated EC that are not present on unstimulated cells.
Cell-cell adhesion is essential for many immunological functions, including interaction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with their targets. We have explored CTL-target interactions using well-characterized cloned human CTLs. Conjugate formation between these CTLs and many antigen-negative targets is almost as efficient as with specific target cells, but does not lead to target-cell lysis. Thus, on specific target cells, adhesion by antigen-independent pathways may occur concurrently with or precede antigen recognition. The molecules LFA-1, CD2 (T11, LFA-2) and LFA-3 have been shown to be involved in human CTL conjugation with and lysis of specific target cells. Here we describe monoclonal antibody inhibition studies using individual monoclonal antibodies and mixes which demonstrate (1) that LFA-1, CD2 and LFA-3 are involved in antigen-independent conjugate formation; and (2) suggest that CD2 and LFA-3 are involved in one pathway and LFA-1 in another. We confirmed the existence of distinct pathways by the demonstration that LFA-1-dependent adhesion requires divalent cations and is temperature-sensitive whereas CD2- and LFA-3-dependent adhesion does not require divalent cations and is temperature-insensitive. Together with previous data, our studies suggest that CD2 on the effector interacts with LFA-3 as its ligand on targets.
Two well-characterized antigens [Mac-1 and lymphocyte-function-associated antigen (LFA-1)], expressed on a variety of leukocytes, are members of a family of surface proteins associated with multiple recognition functions. To analyze expression of these proteins during macrophage development, we utilized both radioimmunoassay and flow cytometry. As previously reported, Mac-1 is expressed on murine macrophages in all stages of development. We found LFA-1 to be present on murine mononuclear phagocytes but only in certain stages of their development. Specifically, we found LFA-1 was expressed on murine tissue macrophages but only on those activated in vivo by bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) or, to a lesser extent, primed by pyran copolymer. Although LFA-1 was absent on inflammatory (responsive) and resident tissue macrophages it was also present on blood-borne monocytes. Activated macrophages also selectively expressed the H-11 and Ly-6 antigens. Thus, these data indicate that LFA-1 is selectively expressed on mononuclear phagocytes of the tissues but only on those in the primed and activated stages of development.
Anti-murine interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were made from rats immunized with murine cytotoxic lymphocytes. One mAb, designated M7/20, strongly inhibited the proliferation of both IL-2 dependent CTLL-2 cells and concanavalin A (Con A)-induced T-cell blasts. Inhibition was linearly dependent on the concentrations of both M7/20 and IL-2. Utilizing FACS analysis, M7/20 was shown to bind selectively to mitogen-activated T lymphocytes and, to a lesser degree, to activated B lymphocytes. 125I-Labeled M7/20 binding assays indicated that 48-hr Con A-induced T-cell blasts possessed 89,000 binding sites/cell with a Kd of 1.2 X 10(-9) M. Competitive binding analyses indicated that M7/20 and IL-2 occupy the same or overlapping cell surface sites. Preliminary biochemical characterization of M7/20 immunoprecipitates of detergent extracts from both surface-iodinated and internally D-[3H]glucosamine-labeled T lymphoblasts indicated that the murine IL-2 receptor is an N-glycosylated 58,000-Da glycoprotein. Together these results suggest that mAb M7/20 binds at or near the IL-2-binding epitope on the murine IL-2 receptor and, thus, upon manipulation may act as an IL-2 agonist.
Three children from two unrelated families had a history of recurrent bacterial infections, and their neutrophils were shown to have deficient phagocytic and respiratory responses and possible deficiencies in chemotaxis or adherence. Their neutrophils were strikingly deficient in the ability to ingest or give a respiratory burst in response to unopsonized bakers' yeast or zymosan (Z). Tests for neutrophil and monocyte CR1 (C3b/iC3b receptor) and CR3 (iC3b receptor) demonstrated rosettes with both EC3b and EC3bi. However, EC3bi were bound only to CR1, and not to CR3, because EC3bi rosettes were inhibited completely by anti-CR1. Neutrophils, monocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells also did not fluorescence stain with monoclonal antibodies specific for the alpha-chain of CR3 (anti-Mac-1, anti-Mol, OKM1, and MN-41). Quantitation of C receptors with 125I monoclonal anti-CR1 and anti-CR3 indicated that neutrophils from each patient expressed normal amounts of CR1 per cell but less than 10% of the normal amount of CR3. Examination of neutrophils by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that a normal glycoprotein of approximately 165,000 daltons was missing. Immunoblotting of these gels indicated that the missing band was the alpha-chain of CR3. Subsequent analysis of all three patients' cells also demonstrated a deficiency of LFA-1 alpha-chain and the common beta-chain that is shared by the CR3/LFA-1/p150,95 membrane antigen family. The deficiency of LFA-1 probably explained the absent NK cell function, as normal NK cell activity is inhibited by anti-LFA-1 but not by anti-CR3. The reduced phagocytic and respiratory responses to Z were probably due to CR3 deficiency, because treatment of normal neutrophils with anti-CR3, but not anti-FLA-1, inhibits responses to Z by 80% to 90%. Ingestion of Staphylococcus epidermidis by normal neutrophils was shown to be partially inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to the alpha-chain of either CR3 or LFA-1, and monoclonal antibody to the common beta-chain inhibited ingestion by 75%. Thus, both CR3 and LFA-1 may have previously unrecognized functions as phagocyte receptors for bacteria. The absence of this type of nonimmune recognition of bacteria by these children's neutrophils may be one of the reasons for their increased susceptibility to bacterial infections.
The role of the complement receptor type 3 (CR3) on thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages (TG-PM) in the destruction of opsonized particles was studied. We found that sheep red blood cells (E) that were opsonized with an IgM monoclonal anti-Forssman antibody and complement (E-IgM-C) were lysed by TG-PM, whereas there was little lysis of E pretreated with either the antibody or the complement source alone. Furthermore, this lysis could be inhibited by anti-CR3 monoclonal antibodies that had previously been shown to inhibit binding of E-IgM-C to the CR3. Kinetic studies of phagocytosis and lysis indicated that lysis of E-IgM-C occurs after phagocytosis, suggesting that lysis is an intracellular event. Further findings suggested that intra-cellular lysis was promoted by CR3 bound to the phagocytosed target, because a monoclonal anti-CR3 antibody decreased the rate of phagocytosis of E-IgM-C but not its magnitude, whereas the rate and extent of lysis were strikingly inhibited. Furthermore, TG-PM that had already internalized unopsonized E selectively lysed E-IgM-C that were added later. These data confirm that the interaction of the CR3 with its ligand on E-IgM-C promotes rapid phagocytosis, and further suggest that the CR3 facilitates degradation of the target particle once internalization has occurred.
A patient presenting delayed umbilical cord detachment, severe recurrent bacterial infections, and inability to form pus exhibited a profound defect in the expression of alpha- and beta-chains of the receptor for the C3bi fragment of C3 (CR3), lymphocyte function antigen 1 (LFA-1) molecule, and the p150,95 molecule found on neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocyte membranes. This was shown by immunofluorescence studies using specific monoclonal antibodies, rosette formation with C3bi-coated erythrocytes, and immunoprecipitation for the LFA-1 complex. These membrane defects were responsible for abnormal phagocytic cell functions including adherence to nylon wool, cell movement, phagocytosis, and opsonized particle-induced oxidative response and for defective natural killer cell activity. In addition, lymphocyte function deficiencies previously unobserved in this disease were found. Cytolytic T lymphocyte activity was profoundly reduced; alpha- and gamma-interferon production were impaired. Finally, there was no antibody production to vaccinal antigens whereas the antibody responses to polysaccharides and to cytomegalovirus were found to be normal. The cytotoxic T cell deficiency could be expected from previous blocking experiments of this function with monoclonal antibodies to LFA-1 and is probably related to an extremely severe deficiency in LFA-1 expression in this patient. Anomalies in interferon and in antibody production suggest additional role(s) of the LFA-1 complex in monocyte/T lymphocyte/B lymphocyte cell interactions that have not yet been envisaged.
The effect of heritable LFA-1 deficiency on T lymphocyte function was measured. After primary mixed lymphocyte stimulation, all six patients studied showed diminished allospecific T lymphocyte cytolytic and NK activity as compared with kindred and normal controls. MLR and mitogen-induced proliferative responses were consistently depressed. LFA-1-deficient, EBV-transformed B cell lines were poor stimulators of T cell responses. Primary cytolytic responses by lymphocytes from severely LFA-1-deficient patients (less than 0.2% of normal surface expression) were consistently more profoundly depressed than those by lymphocytes from moderately deficient patients (about 5% of normal surface expression). These results demonstrate the importance of LFA-1 in lymphocyte function. After repeated MLR restimulation, proliferative and cytolytic capacity improved and CTL lines could be established from all patients. Cytolysis by lines from one but not a second severe patient, and by four of four moderate patients, was inhibited by anti-LFA-1 MAb, and at 10-fold lower concentrations than required for inhibition of killing by control CTL lines. The locus of inhibition was on the target cell for the severely deficient CTL line, and on both the target and effector cells for moderately deficient CTL lines. In contrast, the locus of inhibition for normal CTL is on the effector cell. These findings show that LFA-1 can participate bidirectionally in cell interactions. The in vitro results are discussed in terms of the clinical findings in patients.
Nine antigens found on murine bone marrow cells were examined to define their pattern of expression in murine hematopoietic differentiation. Lymphocyte function antigen (LFA-1), heat stable antigen (recognized by M1/69), common leukocyte antigen (CLA, T200, Ly-5) and Lgp100a (recognized by 30-C7) were present on early hematopoietic progenitors, BFU-E, CFU-E, CFU-GM, and CFU-M. All antigens found on progenitors were found on some immature precursor cells, myeloblasts, erythroblasts, or monoblasts, but their pattern of expression on identifiable hematopoietic cells varied. Three of these antigens, LFA-1, heat stable antigen recognized by M1/69, and CLA, were expressed on leukocytes of all stages of maturity but were lost from the erythroid lineage during differentiation. MAC-1, Forssman antigen, heat stable antigen (recognized by M1/75), anti-P-95 (recognized by M5/113), and Ia (recognized by M5/114) were found only on differentiated hematopoietic precursors or mature cells. The expression of these antigens was more lineage-specific. MAC-1 and heat stable antigen (recognized by M1/75) were restricted to either mature myeloid or erythroid cells, respectively. The marked differences in distribution of these antigens suggest that they may be useful in negative or positive selection experiments to enrich progenitors, and that some of them may have a functional role in differentiation.
The Mac-1, LFA-1 (lymphocyte function-associated 1), p150,95 family of glycoproteins, which share a common beta subunit of Mr 95 000, are of widespread importance in leucocyte adhesion reactions. This paper focuses on the role of this glycoprotein family in granulocyte and monocyte adhesion and chemotaxis in vitro, and in migration into inflammatory sites in vivo. Most findings have been made with granulocytes, but results with monocytes are similar. Some studies have used leucocytes from patients exhibiting a severe or moderate deficiency in expression of this glycoprotein family, which is secondary to a defect in the common beta subunit. Patients are susceptible to bacterial infections and have defective pus formation and Rebuck skin-window tests, despite chronic granulocytosis. Granulocytes from such patients exhibit defective adherence to serum albumin and fibronectin-coated glass or plastic, defective orientation and directed migration in response to chemoattractants, and are defective in chemoattractant-stimulated aggregation and hyperadherence. Antibodies to the common beta subunit, to the Mac-1 alpha subunit, and to a lesser extent to the LFA-1 and p150,95 alpha subunits, inhibit many of the same functional responses by normal cells. In normal granulocytes and monocytes chemoattractants stimulate a five-fold increase in Mac-1 and p150,95 surface expression, by mobilization of a latent, presumably intracellular, pool. Cells from patients are deficient in up-regulation of these molecules but show normal up-regulation of other surface receptors, degranulation and oxidative burst. The hypothesis is presented that Mac-1 and p150,95 regulate or directly mediate the increase in granulocyte and monocyte adhesivity, which is essential for diapedesis, chemotaxis and migration into inflammatory sites.
Three patients (2 female, 1 male) with recurrent infection, granulocytosis, impaired pus formation, and/or delayed umbilical cord separation were identified. Assessments of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)/monocyte function in each patient revealed profound abnormalities of adherence and adherence-dependent functions. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of their PMN lysates demonstrated a deficient or absent protein(s) of 138 kilodaltons (gp 138). Na3HB4 labeling demonstrated the absence of a major cell surface glycoprotein complex in each patient. Among parental and sibling PMN suspensions, functional assessments revealed no consistent abnormalities, although variably diminished gp138 was identified by SDS-PAGE and Na3HB4 labeling. Analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to LFA-1 alpha, OKM1 alpha, and their common beta subunit demonstrated a severe or total deficiency of PMN/monocyte surface expression of each protein among all patients; intermediate values were observed for parental and affected sibling suspensions, findings consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for this disorder. Cell surface labeling (125I) and immunoprecipitation with the same MAb demonstrated the absence of these glycoproteins in addition to a 150-kilodalton protein (p150,95). Identical abnormalities of surface expression of patient lymphocytes blast-transformed with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or Epstein-Barr virus were demonstrated. Further, significantly diminished natural killer cell cytotoxicity was observed for each patient tested. PHA blast-transformed patient lymphocytes labeled with [35S]methionine demonstrated a total absence of the beta molecule but indicated the presence of an LFA-1 alpha precursor. These findings indicate that LFA-1 alpha synthesis and surface expression require beta association. It is concluded that impaired inflammatory function in this disorder is casually related to a heritable deficiency of critical "adhesive" leukocyte glycoproteins.
A family of functionally important, high-molecular-weight glycoproteins with identical beta subunits has recently been defined on leukocyte cell surfaces. Soon after these molecules and at least some of their functions had been defined with monoclonal antibodies, an inherited disease, LFA-1, Mac-1 deficiency, was discovered in humans. This deficiency has confirmed that this glycoprotein family is of central importance in leukocyte cell surface adhesion reactions.
Serological and biochemical studies using monoclonal antibodies have demonstrated that the Ly-15 cell membrane alloantigens are polymorphic sites on the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) molecule. Ly-15.2 and LFA-1 show identical tissue distributions, being present on all thymocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils, and flow cytofluorometric analysis indicated identical cell surface expression of these molecules. Identity of Ly-15.2 and LFA-1 was confirmed by immunochemical analysis. The Ly-15.2 and LFA-1 molecules have an identical heterodimeric structure of Mr 180,000 alpha chain and Mr 94,000 beta chain, which coelectrophorese on two-dimensional NaDodSO4/PAGE. Furthermore, anti-Ly-15.2 and anti-LFA-1 antibodies coprecipitate the same molecule from thymocyte lysates, and peptide mapping studies show that the Ly-15.2 and LFA-1 alpha chains are identical, as are the beta chains.
Cell-surface adherence reactions are fundamental to the biology of lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. The lymphocyte function-associated 1 (LFA-1) and macrophage 1 (Mac-1) glycoproteins mediate differing types of adhesion reactions on these cells. LFA-1 participates in T-lymphocyte and natural killer-cell adhesion to target cells, whereas the Mac-1 antigen is identical to the complement receptor type 3, which mediates adhesion of monocytes and granulocytes to C3bi-sensitized particles. Deficiency of these proteins, in a heritable disease, results in multiple adhesion-related leukocyte defects. LFA-1 and Mac-1 resemble one another in overall structure, having alpha-subunits of relative molecular mass (Mr) 180,000 and 170,000, respectively, which are non-covalently associated with beta-subunits of Mr 95,000 in alpha 1 beta 1 complexes. Peptide mapping and immunological cross-reactivity have shown that the beta-subunits are highly related if not identical, but have revealed no similarities between the alpha-subunits. Nonetheless, the shared beta-subunit suggested that LFA-1 and Mac-1 might be members of a protein family containing diversified but evolutionarily related alpha-subunits. Therefore, we examine here the structure of the alpha-subunits by N-terminal amino-acid sequencing. Sequence homology shows that the alpha-subunits are members of a novel leukocyte adhesion protein family, and suggests that their evolution occurred by gene duplication. A search for similarities to previously sequenced proteins reveals a further unexpected homology between LFA-1 and leukocyte (alpha) interferons.
An inherited syndrome characterized by recurrent or progressive necrotic soft-tissue infections, diminished pus formation, impaired wound healing, granulocytosis, and/or delayed umbilical cord severance was recognized in four male and four female patients. As shown with subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies in immunofluorescence flow cytometry and 125I immunoprecipitation techniques, in addition to a NaB3H4-galactose oxidase labeling assay, granulocytes, monocytes, or lymphocytes from these individuals had a "moderate" or "severe" deficiency of Mac-1, LFA-1, or p150,95 (or a combination)--three structurally related "adhesive" surface glycoproteins. Two distinct phenotypes were defined on the basis of the quantity of antigen expressed. Three patients with severe deficiency and four patients with moderate deficiency expressed less than 0.3% and 2.5%-31% of normal amounts of these molecules on granulocyte surfaces, respectively. The severity of clinical infectious complications among these patients was directly related to the degree of glycoprotein deficiency. More profound abnormalities of tissue leukocyte mobilization, granulocyte-directed migration, hyperadherence, phagocytosis of iC3b-opsonized particles, and complement- or antibody-dependent cytotoxicity were found in individuals with severe, as compared with moderate, deficiency. It is proposed that in vivo abnormalities of leukocyte mobilization reflect the critical roles of Mac-1 glycoproteins in adhesive events required for endothelial margination and tissue exudation. The recognition of phenotypic variation among patients with Mac-1, LFA-1 deficiency may be important with respect to therapeutic strategies.