Macrophages activated and primed in vivo, although not resident or responsive macrophages, express the lymphocyte function associated (LFA)-1 antigen. By contrast, the biochemically related Mac-1 antigen is expressed on all populations of macrophages. In the present paper, we studied regulation of the LFA-1 antigen in vitro. LFA-1 could be induced in vitro on thioglycollate (TG)-elicited but not on proteose peptone (PP)-elicited or resident macrophages. Specifically, macrophage-activating factor (MAF), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), or picogram amounts of endotoxin (LPS) induced LFA-1 on TG-elicited macrophages following overnight incubation. Interferon, -alpha or -beta, fucoidin, and colony-stimulating factor were not effective. While some levels of LFA-1 could be detected as soon as 10 hr, peak expression was observed after 16 to 32 hr of incubation. The induction could be completely abrogated by cycloheximide, suggesting that protein synthesis was required. These results indicate that the induction of LFA-1 on mononuclear phagocytes is closely regulated and that the requirements for such induction are distinct from but share certain similarities with induction of cytotoxic functions and expression of Ia antigen.
To explore the role of the T3, T4, and LFA-1 molecules in high and low "avidity" interactions between SB2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones and their targets, monoclonal antibody-mediated inhibition of cytotoxicity has been studied in experiments that vary the "avidity" of interaction in three different ways. 1) Previous results have been extended with respect to different CTL clones assayed on the same SB2-positive target cells. Differences between clones in susceptibility to anti-T3 inhibition paralleled variations in anti-T4 inhibition, and both correlated inversely with the "avidity" of the effector-target interaction (inferred previously from studies of conjugate dissociation). 2) A high "avidity" clone, 8.4, was identified that lysed not only SB2-positive cells but also cross-reacted on a few SB2-negative cells. Cold target inhibition studies confirmed the cross-reaction, and together with conjugate dissociation studies, indicated that cross-reaction to be of lower "avidity" than the specific recognition of SB2. Cross-reactive lysis was much more susceptible to inhibition by anti-T3 and anti-T4 than was specific lysis. 3) Anti-T3 and anti-T4 blocking was analyzed in the presence of anti-Ia antibody to reduce the amount of Ia antigen available on the target. Anti-T3 and anti-T4 antibody blocking was more efficient after the addition of anti-Ia antibody concentrations that (by themselves) produced minimal inhibition of lysis. As a control, anti-LFA-1 antibody blocking was analyzed in each of these three experimental systems that compare interactions of different "avidity"; minimal variation was observed in the efficiency of inhibition by anti-LFA-1. Thus, anti-T3 and anti-T4 inhibition correlates inversely with the "avidity" of that CTL-target interaction, but anti-LFA-1 inhibition does not.
Investigations of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function were performed in a 5-yr-old white female with delayed umbilical cord separation, impaired pus formation, and a severe defect of PMN chemotaxis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated an almost total deficiency of a high molecular weight glycoprotein(s) (GP138) in the granule and membrane fractions of the patient's cells, and NaB3H4-galactose oxidase labeling demonstrated the absence of a major glycoprotein complex on the surface of her PMNs. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were employed in flow cytometry experiments to demonstrate that two previously characterized glycoproteins (Mo1 and LFA1) were undetectable on the surface of the patient's PMNs and monocytes. Immunoprecipitation of 125I-labeled patient cells with subunit specific MAbs confirmed that the alpha-subunits of Mo1 (155 kD) and LFA1 (177 kD) and their common beta-subunit (94 kD) were totally deficient. Functional analyses of patient PMNs demonstrated severe impairment of adherence- and adhesion-dependent cell functions including spreading, aggregation, orientation in chemotactic gradients, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and phagocytosis of particles (Oil-Red-0-paraffin, zymosan) selectively opsonized with C3-derived ligands. Patient PMNs demonstrated a normal capacity to rosette with IgG or C3b-coated sheep erythrocytes, but rosette formation with C3bi-coated erythrocytes was profoundly diminished. Adhesion-independent functions including shape change, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-3H-phenylalanine binding, and O-2 generation or secretion elicited by soluble stimuli were normal. Membrane fluidity, surface charge, and microtubule assembly were also normal. These findings provide new evidence that critical PMN surface glycoproteins are required to facilitate multiple adhesion-dependent cellular functions of the inflammatory response.
Two long-term cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) lines derived from the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of a single donor were analyzed for target specificity and involvement of cell surface molecules in CTL-target interactions. One line, AH2, was generated after stimulation with B lymphoblastoid cells. Cytolysis by these cells was restricted to targets expressing the appropriate HLA-A2 specificity and was blocked by mAb recognizing CD2, CD3, CD8, LFA-1, and LFA-3. The second line, AE1, was generated after stimulation with cultured endothelial cells derived from human newborn preputial microvessels. These CTL lysed all human target cells tested, except autologous cells and the Class I negative cell line Daudi. In addition, mAb specific for CD2, CD3, and CD8 did not affect cytolysis. Anti-LFA-1 and -LFA-3 mAb blocked cytolysis of B lymphoblastoid targets but not endothelial targets. These results indicate that some CTL utilize as yet uncharacterized cell surface structures for CTL-target interactions.
Four children with an immunodeficiency involving the absence of leukocyte membrane glycoproteins reacting with anti-LFA-1 and OKM-1 monoclonal antibodies were unable to mediate adherence-dependent leukocyte functions. Even with normal Fc receptor function, their PMN-ADCC and MC-NKC were markedly deficient. Single cell analysis demonstrated deficient antibody-mediated PMN-target cell adherence. Monoclonal antibodies against LFA-1 and OKM-1 reproduced this immunodeficiency in leukocytes from normal adults. LFA-1/OKM-1 mediates a PMN-target cell adhesive step.
Deficiency of a granulocyte surface glycoprotein of 150,000-D had been associated with defective C3- and IgG-dependent phagocytosis in a patient with recurrent bacterial infections. By using monoclonal antibodies, we found that this patient's granulocytes, monocytes, and null cells were deficient in Mo1 (equivalent to OKM1 and Mac-1), a cell surface molecule consisting of two noncovalently linked glycoproteins of 155,000 and 94,000 D. The 155,000-D subunit is closely associated with the human complement receptor that recognizes C3bi and/or a further degradation product termed C3dg (C3bi receptor); the 94,000-D subunit has been shown to be shared, on normal cells, by two other surface membrane glycoproteins: lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and P-150, 95. Both subunits of Mo1 were deficient on the patient's granulocytes as determined by immunoprecipitation with subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies as well as fluorescence analysis. Mol-deficient monocytes, like granulocytes, had defective C3-and IgG-dependent phagocytosis. Natural killing activity by the patient's peripheral blood leukocytes was normal. Mo1-deficient granulocytes and monocytes rosetted normally with sheep erythrocytes coated with C3bi. This rosetting was totally inhibited by a mixture of anti-Mo1 and anti-C3b (the major fragment of C3) receptor antibodies but not by either antibody alone. Since monoclonal antibodies to the 155,000-D subunit of Mo1 can inhibit C3bi receptor binding, immune phagocytosis, opsonized zymosan-induced degranulation, and superoxide generation by normal phagocytes (functions which are defective in Mo1-deficient cells), it appears likely that Mo1 deficiency may in part underlie the functional aberrations leading to recurrent bacterial infections in man.
A glycoprotein complex of 210,000 and 130,000 m.w., found on mitogen or alloantigen-stimulated human T cells and not on other hematopoietic cells, has been defined by a monoclonal antibody (Mab). The components of this complex are a subset of a larger family of proteins (210,000, 165,000 and 130,000 m.w.) defined by a second Mab. In a panel of hematopoietic cell lines and cell types, only activated T cells (including the cell line HUT-102) express the 210,000/130,000 complex and these cells also express the IL 2 receptor, a characteristic marker for activated T cells. The 210,000/130,000 m.w. complex (reactive with the Mab TS2/7) is present on all long-term activated T cells, including both the OKT4 and OKT8 subsets. The 210,000 m.w. subunit is expressed only on activated T cells. Other lymphoid cells express either the 130,000 m.w. subunit alone (unactivated lymphocytes, thymocytes, HUT-78) or the 130,000 subunit together with a 165,000 subunit (MOLT-4, HSB, and other leukemic T cell lines). The 210,000/130,000 m.w., 165,000/130,000 m.w. and 130,000 m.w. complexes are antigenically related in that all share reactivity with the Mab A- 1A5 . Among non-lymphoid hematopoietic cells and cell lines, none express the 210,000 m.w. chain; adherent cells (monocytes) and myeloid cell lines each express single proteins of 130,000 to 155,000 m.w. Granulocytes and red blood cells are negative and platelets express multiple bands (165,000 and 140,000 m.w.). Immunoperoxidase staining of tissue sections showed that a broad range of tissues and cell types had material cross-reactive with the lymphoid 130,000 m.w. protein. However, only a discrete subset of those tissues and cells including blood vessel walls, connective tissue, smooth muscle, kidney mesangial cells, and some non-cellular matrix tissue, had material cross-reactive with the 210,000 m.w. protein on activated T lymphocytes.
Three cell surface molecules, designated LFA-1, LFA-2, and LFA-3 were identified by mAbs selected for their ability to block cytolysis by an OKT4+, HLA-DR-specific CTL line. The LFA mAbs block all CTL and proliferative functions studied. In addition, anti-LFA-1 mAbs inhibit NK-mediated cytolysis. By analogy with murine LFA-1, human LFA-1 may be involved in the adhesion stage of cellular interactions. LFA-2, the SRBC receptor molecule, appears to be a T cell function-specific molecule. We have not yet established whether LFA-2 participates in antigen recognition or whether it is involved in antigen-non-specific interactions. The anti-LFA-3 mAb specifically blocks function by binding to the target cells, implying that LFA-3 may be a target ligand for an effector-specific receptor. The CTL-target interaction involves a number of steps, including antigen recognition, cell adhesion, and delivery of the lethal hit . The LFA antigens show the complexity of this process at the molecular level. The anti-LFA monoclonal antibodies will be useful probes into the T cell immune response and may prove clinically relevant, both diagnostically and therapeutically.
Leukocyte surface glycoproteins that share a common beta subunit have been found to be congenitally deficient in three unrelated patients with recurring bacterial infection. The glycoproteins, Mac-1, LFA-1, and p150,95, have the subunit compositions alpha M beta, alpha L beta, and alpha X beta, respectively. Using subunit-specific monoclonal antibodies, both the alpha M and beta subunits of Mac-1, the alpha L and beta subunits of LFA-1, and at the least the beta subunit of p150,95, were found to be deficient at the cell surface by the techniques of immunofluorescence flow cytometry, radioimmunoassay, and immunoprecipitation. A latent pool of Mac-1 that can be expressed on granulocyte surfaces in response to secretory stimuli, such as f-Met-Leu-Phe, was also lacking in patients. Deficiency was found on all leukocytes tested, including granulocytes, monocytes, and T and B lymphocytes. Quantitation by immunofluorescence cytometry of subunits on granulocytes from parents of these patients and of a fourth deceased patient showed approximately half-normal surface expression, and, together with data on other siblings and a family with an affected father and children, demonstrate autosomal recessive inheritance. Deficiency appears to be quantitative rather than qualitative, with two patients expressing approximately 0.5% and one patient approximately 5% of normal amounts. The latter patient had alpha beta complexes on the cell surface detectable by immunoprecipitation. Biosynthesis experiments showed the presence of normal amounts of alpha'L intracellular precursor in lymphoid lines of all three patients. Together with surface deficiency of three molecules that share a common beta subunit but have differing alpha subunits, this suggests the primary deficiency is of the beta subunit. The lack of maturation of alpha'L to alpha L and the deficiency of the alpha subunits at the cell surface and in latent pools suggests that association with the beta subunit is required for alpha subunit processing and transport to the cell surface or to latent pools. The molecular basis of this disease is discussed in light of adhesion-related functional abnormalities in patients' leukocytes and the blockade of similar functions in healthy cells by monoclonal antibodies.
Three cell surface antigens associated with the CTL-target cell interaction were previously identified by generation of mAb against OKT4+, HLA-DR-specific CTL, and selection for inhibition of cytolysis in a 51Cr-release assay. In this report, we showed that these mAb inhibit cytolysis by blocking CTL-target cell conjugate formation. It appears that LFA-1, LFA-2, and LFA-3 are cell surface structures involved in strengthening effector-target adhesion that accompanies antigen-specific recognition.
Recently a tissue restricted antigen system, which is expressed on endothelial cells and monocytes (E-M antigens) but not lymphocytes, has been associated with kidney graft rejection. In screening sera from recipients of kidney, bone marrow or skin grafts for possible reactivity with endothelial cell antigens, we have found that all (13 of 13) endothelial reactive sera also reacted with monocytes, but that many (21 of 34) monocyte reactive sera did not react with endothelial cells. Additionally, one well-defined monoclonal antibody (M1/70), which was cytotoxic for human monocytes, neither stained renal endothelium nor was absorbed by renal endothelium when perfused through a human kidney. Thus, not all monocyte antigens appear to be expressed in high concentrations on renal vascular endothelium. This may explain why monocyte reactive antibodies do not always correlate with kidney graft rejection.
Mac-1 is a macrophage surface antigen containing noncovalently associated alpha and beta subunits of Mr = 170,000 and 95,000, respectively (Kürzinger, K., and Springer, T.A. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 12412-12418). To determine whether the subunits are derived from a common or separate precursor, the biosynthesis of Mac-1 was studied. [35S]Methionine pulse-chase-labeled material was immunoprecipitated with either a monoclonal antibody recognizing an alpha chain determinant present in the associated alpha 1 beta 1 complex or a polyclonal antiserum recognizing the alpha 1 beta 1 complex as well as the free beta subunit. In peritoneal exudate macrophages, the alpha subunit was derived from a precursor of Mr = 161,000 which was converted to the mature Mr = 170,000 chain with a t1/2 of 30 to 45 min. The beta subunit was derived from a Mr = 87,000 precursor which became associated with the alpha subunit and was converted to Mr = 95,000 with a t1/2 of 2 h. Labeled beta chain took longer than alpha to become associated with the alpha 1 beta 1 complex in a number of different types of peritoneal macrophage populations, correlating with synthesis of an excess of beta. In the P388D1 macrophage-like tumor line, alpha and beta were processed with t1/2s of about 2 and 1 h. Both alpha and beta precursors were present in the complex, suggesting that complex formation preceded processing.
It is now established that monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against LFA-1 and Lyt-2,3 antigens on cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) block killing function in the absence of C. It has been suggested that the blocking is inversely related to CTL-target affinity. In this report, we studied the effect of papain pretreatment of target cells, because papain is known to remove H-2 and to render target cells more resistant to allospecific CTL. CTL-target conjugate formation was weaker with papain-treated target cells (based on reduced post-dispersion lysis in dextran-containing medium). The concentration of MAb required to produce 40 to 60% inhibition of 51Cr release (2-hr assay) was reduced four to 29-fold for alpha LFA-1 and 64 to 114-fold for alpha Lyt-2,3. Papain, however, did not induce blocking by MAb to other CTL antigens such as Thy-1, H-2, and T200. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that papain selectively removed more than 95% of H-2. In kinetic studies of removal and recovery, H-2 density and conjugate formation correlated well with each other. Sensitivity to blocking was not as well correlated, raising the possibility that an unidentified papain-sensitive target cell molecule other than H-2 plays an important role in CTL-target interaction.
The authors review their recent research involving the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) directed against HLA-DR antigens. A mouse anti-human xenogeneic system first suggested that HLA-DR antigens could be recognized by CTL. Human allogeneic CTL specific for HLA-DR6 were generated and found to be OKT4+. The fact that these CTL were OKT4+ while anti HLA-A,B CTL were OKT8+ suggested that these T cell surface antigens may be involved in MHC antigen recognition; ie, they may be part of the T cell receptor. These OKT4+, HLA-DR specific CTL were further used to generate monoclonal antibodies (1) which block cytolysis and define novel antigens involved in the CTL-target interaction and (2) which define an antigenic complex on alloantigen activated T cells.
Mouse tissue sections were stained by monoclonal antibodies to macrophage antigens (Mac-1 (M1/70), Mac-2 (M3/38), Mac-3 (M3/84) with the use of immunoperoxidase. Mac-1 was located diffusely in the cytoplasm of round cells in a high percentage of alveolar macrophages, resident peritoneal and bone marrow cells, in splenic red pulp, and in rare perivascular cells in the thymus. Mac-1 was absent in epithelial cells and Langerhans cells. Mac-2 was strongly positive in many dendritic cells in the thymic medulla, more than the cortex, in paracortex and medulla of lymph nodes, sparing the follicles, and in the marginal zone of spleen. There were a few positive cells in germinal centers. Mac-2 was located in a low percentage of bone marrow and a high percentage of resident peritoneal cells. When positive in sections Mac-3 always showed granular cytoplasmic staining. Bone marrow showed a high percentage of cytoplasmic staining (greater than 50%), as compared with low surface staining (less than 1%). It was found in hematopoietic cells, and in all endothelium, including postcapillary venules and lining of sinuses. It was probable that the resulting dendritic staining pattern for Mac-3 in paracortex of lymph node, white and red pulp, thymic cortex, and medulla included dendritic cells other than endothelial cells. Alveolar macrophages and Kupffer cells were positive for Mac-2 and Mac-3. Mac-3 also stained bile canaliculi. Clearly different staining patterns were found in epithelial cells for Mac-2 and Mac-3 in kidney tubules, intestinal mucosal lining, bronchi, choroid plexus, and epidermis.