Interaction with stromal cells is known to be crucial for growth and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. To characterize adhesion molecules involved in this interaction, we examined adhesion of a panel of lymphoid, myeloid, and mast cell lines with stromal cells. We found that very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were major adhesion molecules in lymphoid and myeloid cells, whereas myeloma cells adhered to stromal cells through hyaluronate. We investigated regulation of VLA-4 during differentiation of myeloid cells using a neutrophil precursor cell line, L-G3. Differentiation of neutrophils induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was accompanied with down-regulation of VLA-4. Induced L-G3 cells adhered to stromal cells in proportion to the expression of VLA-4. Mast cells used two mechanisms to adhere to fibroblasts and stromal cells. They adhered to fibronectin through VLA-5 when stimulated with steel factor and also directly to membrane-anchored steel factor through c-kit.
The localization of the adhesion protein L-selectin in human neutrophils was determined by subcellular fractionation and immunoelectron microscopy and compared with the localization of Mac-1 (alpha m beta 2) and alkaline phosphatase, the marker for secretory vesicles. L-selectin was found to be localized exclusively on the plasma membrane of unstimulated cells and also of stimulated cells, although markedly diminished. This was in contrast to Mac-1, which was also localized in secretory vesicles and in specific/gelatinase granules as shown previously [Sengeløv, H., et al. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) 92, 1467-1476]. Stimulation of neutrophils with inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), platelet-activating factor (PAF), or f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP), induced parallel up-regulation of the surface membrane content of alkaline phosphatase and Mac-1 and down-regulation of L-selectin, as evidenced by flow cytometry. Preimbedding immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that L-selectin was present mainly on tips of microvilli in unstimulated cells and showed that alkaline phosphatase and Mac-1 were randomly distributed on the surface membrane of fMLP-stimulated cells. These studies indicate that the transition of neutrophils from L-selectin-presenting cells to Mac-1-presenting cells induced by inflammatory mediators is mediated by incorporation of secretory vesicle membrane, rich in Mac-1 and devoid of L-selectin, into the plasma membrane.
We have characterized the immunobiology of the interaction of intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3; CD50) with its counter-receptor, leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18). Purified ICAM-3 supported LFA-1-dependent adhesion in a temperature- and cation-dependent manner. Activation of cells bearing LFA-1 increased adhesiveness for ICAM-3 in parallel to adhesiveness for ICAM-1. Although CBR-IC3/1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) blocked adhesion of cells to purified LFA-1, when tested alone, neither CBR-IC3/1 nor five novel ICAM-3 mAbs characterized here blocked adhesion of cells to purified ICAM-3 or homotypic adhesion. Two ICAM-3 mAbs, CBR-IC3/1 and CBR-IC3/2, were required to block LFA-1-dependent adhesion to purified ICAM-3- or LFA-1-dependent, ICAM-1-, ICAM-2-independent homotypic adhesion of lymphoid cell lines. Two ICAM-3 mAbs, CBR-IC3/1 and CBR-IC3/6, induced LFA-1-independent aggregation that was temperature and divalent cation dependent and was completely inhibited by ICAM-3 mAb, CBR-IC3/2, recognizing a distinct epitope. Purified ICAM-3 provided a costimulatory signal for proliferation of resting T lymphocytes. mAb to ICAM-3, together with mAbs to ICAM-1 and ICAM-2, inhibited peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin, allogeneic stimulator cells, and specific antigen. Inhibition was almost complete and to the same level as with mAb to LFA-1, suggesting the most functionally important, and possibly all, of the ligands for LFA-1 have been defined.
The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. We describe here the isolation and characterization of the chicken beta 2 (CD18) subunit, common to the leukocyte integrin family. The deduced 748-amino-acid sequence reveals a transmembrane protein with 65% and 64% identity with its human and murine homologues, respectively. The chicken beta 2 can associate on the cell surface with the human alpha subunit of LFA-1 and yields a hybrid molecule capable of binding to purified ICAM-1 and ICAM-3.
Memory T lymphocytes extravasate at sites of inflammation, but the mechanisms employed by these cells to initiate contact and tethering with endothelium are incompletely understood. An important part of leukocyte extravasation is the initiation of rolling adhesions on endothelial selectins; such events have been studied in monocytes and neutrophils but not lymphocytes. In this study, the potential of T lymphocytes to adhere and roll on endothelial selectins in vitro was investigated. We demonstrate that T cells can form tethers and rolling adhesions on P selectin and E selectin under physiologic flow conditions. Tethering and rolling on P selectin was independent of cell-surface cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) expression, which correlated strictly with the capacity of T cells to form rolling adhesions under flow on E selectin. T cell tethering to P selectin was abolished by selective removal of cell surface sialomucins by a P. haemolytica O-glycoprotease, while cutaneous lymphocyte antigen expression was unaffected. A sialomucin molecule identical or closely related to P selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), the major P selectin ligand on neutrophils and HL-60 cells, appears to be a major T cell ligand for P selectin. P selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 does not appear to support T cell rolling on E selectin. In turn, E selectin ligands do not appear to be associated with sialomucins. These data demonstrate the presence of structurally distinct ligands for P or E selectins on T cells, provide evidence that both ligands can be coexpressed on a single T cell, and mediate tethering and rolling on the respective selectins in a mutually exclusive fashion.
The integrins are a family of transmembrane heterodimeric adhesion molecules that play important roles in wound healing, immune system function and organ development. Recent studies indicate that adhesion of integrins to their ligands is not constitutive but is dynamically regulated by intracellular signal transduction pathways.
Activated platelets express P-selectin and release leukocyte chemoattractants; however, they have not been known to express integrin ligands important in the stabilization of leukocyte interactions with the vasculature. We now demonstrate the presence of intercellular adhesion molecular-2 (ICAM-2) (CD102), and lack of expression of other beta 2-integrin ligands, ICAM-1 (CD54) and ICAM-3 (CD50), on the surface of resting and stimulated platelets. ICAM-2 isolated from platelets migrates as a band of 59,000 M(r) in reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Staining of bone marrow aspirates with anti-ICAM-2 mAb demonstrates strong reactivity to megakaryocytes. Using frozen thin sections and immunogold labeling, the antigen was shown to be present on the plasma membrane and surface-connected canalicular system of resting platelets. The average number of ICAM-2 molecules per platelet is 3,000 +/- 230 and does not change after activation. In adhesion assays, resting and stimulated platelets were capable of binding through ICAM-2 to purified leukocyte function-associated antigen-1. Activation of T lymphocytes with PMA stimulated binding to platelets that was Mg2+ dependent and could be specifically inhibited by mAbs to either ICAM-2 or leukocyte function-associated antigen-1. ICAM-2 is the only known beta 2-integrin ligand present on platelets, suggesting that it may play an important role in leukocyte-platelet interactions in inflammation and thrombosis.
It has been previously demonstrated that lymphocyte function-associated molecule 1 (LFA-1) plays a major role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-mediated syncytia formation. In the present study we investigated the involvement of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), ICAM-2 and ICAM-3 in the process. The ability of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against ICAM-1, ICAM-2 and ICAM-3 to block syncytia was analyzed either in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-activated lymphocytes infected in vitro with primary or laboratory strains of HIV or by coculturing a T cell line stably expressing HIV envelope with PHA-activated lymphocytes. Complete inhibition of syncytia formation was observed only by the simultaneous addition to the cell cultures of all (i.e. anti-ICAM-1, anti-ICAM-2 and anti-ICAM-3) mAb. These results indicate that the interaction between LFA-1 and ICAM is a critical step in HIV-mediated syncytia formation, and that ICAM-1, ICAM-2 and ICAM-3 are the receptor molecules for the LFA-1-dependent syncytia formation.
We have used BIAcore to analyze the kinetics of the interaction between rhinovirus and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Human rhinovirus serotype 3 (HRV3) was immobilized in the carboxymethylated dextran of the sensor chip, and sICAM-1 expressed with baculovirus was injected through the rhinovirus surface. sICAM-1 bound specifically to HRV3. The virus remained intact in the surface after 12 successive cycles of association and dissociation at 20°C. The association rate was slow (720 M−1 s−1) and the dissociation rate was moderate (1.8 × 10−3 s−1) for protein interaction. A dissociation constant (KD) of 2.5 (±0.18) μM was obtained from the kinetic constants. A slightly higher KD of 7.2 μM was obtained when equilibrium between virus and soluble receptor was reached in solution. At 30°C, binding of sICAM-1 disrupted HRV3, as monitored by a loss in resonance units.
p150,95 is a member of the leukocyte integrin family of adhesion proteins. Compared with LFA-1 and Mac-1, p150,95 is less well functionally characterized. Although p150,95 has complement receptor activity for iC3b and has been designated complement receptor type 4, transfected cells expressing p150,95 do not bind iC3b-sensitized cells. We report that cells cotransfected with a human p150,95 alpha subunit and a chicken, but not human, beta subunit bind IgM-iC3b-coated erythrocytes, suggesting that interactions between the alpha and beta subunits can regulate p150,95 adhesiveness. Furthermore, purified human p150,95 binds to cell-bound iC3b-coated erythrocytes. Because binding to iC3b by cellular and purified p150,95 is specifically abolished by mAbs that localize to the I domain of p150,95, we suggest that the I domain of the p150,95 alpha subunit is an important ligand recognition site for iC3b.
Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is one of three immunoglobulin superfamily members that bind to the integrins lymphocyte function associated 1 (LFA-1) and Mac-1 on leukocytes. We have generated mice that are genetically and functionally deficient in ICAM-1. These mice have elevated numbers of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, as well as diminished allogeneic T cell responses and delayed type hypersensitivity. Mutant mice are resistant to lethal effects of high doses of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and this correlates with a significant decrease in neutrophil infiltration in the liver. Production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin 1 is normal in ICAM-1-deficient mice, and thus protection appears to be related to a diminution in critical leukocyte-endothelial interactions. After sensitization with D-galactosamine (D-Gal), ICAM-1-deficient mice are resistant to the lethal effect of low doses of exotoxin (Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B [SEB]), which has been shown to mediate its toxic effects via the activation of specific T cells. In this model, ICAM-1-mediated protection against SEB lethality correlates with a decrease in the systemic release of inflammatory cytokines, as well as with prevention of extensive hepatocyte necrosis and hemorrhage. ICAM-1-deficient mice sensitized with D-Gal, however, are not protected from lethality when challenged with low doses of endotoxin (LPS). These studies show that the different contribution of ICAM-1 in the activation of either T cells or macrophages is decisive for the fatal outcome of the shock in these two models. This work suggests that anti-ICAM-1 therapy may be beneficial in both gram-positive and -negative septic shock, either by reducing T cell activation or by diminishing neutrophil infiltration.
We have utilized a transendothelial lymphocyte chemotaxis assay to identify and purify a lymphocyte chemoattractant in supernatants of mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed identity with monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), a chemoattractant previously thought to be specific for monocytes. Recombinant MCP-1 is chemoattractive for purified T lymphocytes and for CD3+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood lymphocyte preparations. The T-cell response to MCP-1 is dose-dependent and chemotactic, rather than chemokinetic. Phenotyping of chemoattracted T lymphocytes shows they are an activated memory subset. The response to MCP-1 by T lymphocytes can be duplicated in the absence of an endothelial monolayer and the majority of T-lymphocyte chemotactic activity in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatants can be neutralized by antibody to MCP-1. Thus, MCP-1 is the major lymphocyte chemoattractant secreted by mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and is capable of acting as a potent T-lymphocyte, as well as monocyte, chemoattractant. This may help explain why monocytes and T lymphocytes of the memory subset are always found together at sites of antigen-induced inflammation.
Neutrophil tethering and rolling in shear flow are mediated by selectins and have been thought to be two indistinguishable manifestations of a single molecular interaction between selectin and ligand. However, we report that under physiologic flow conditions, tethering to E-selectin requires a ligand distinct from the one that supports neutrophil rolling. Tethering under shear to E-selectin requires a carbohydrate ligand that is closely associated with the lectin domain of L-selectin on the neutrophil surface, as enzymatic removal of L-selectin, chemotactic factor-induced shedding of L-selectin, and L-selectin MAbs effectively block tethering. In contrast, this ligand is dispensable for the ability to roll on E-selectin, since rolling adhesions formed after static incubations were not affected by the presence or absence of L-selectin. Thus, E-selectin interactions with ligands on neutrophils persist after L-selectin shedding. These findings add an additional step for regulation of leukocyte localization in inflammatory sites.
30) can bind to human rhinovirus 3 without disruption. Disruption by sICAM-1 of rhinovirus that yields 80S particles is strongly temperature dependent and is antagonized by a low pH. Interestingly, sICAM-1 remains bound to the viral capsid after RNA is released, although in smaller amounts than those observed for the native virus. We have found heterogeneity both between and within 80S particle preparations in the VP4 content and number of bound receptors. The ability of the virus to remain bound to its receptor during the uncoating process may facilitate the transport of the viral genome into the cytoplasm in vivo."]" data-sheets-userformat="[null,null,8961,[null,0],null,null,null,null,null,null,null,3,0,null,null,null,9]">We have examined the pathway of rhinovirus interaction with soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1). Binding of sICAM-1 to rhinovirus serotypes 3 and 14 gives particles with sedimentation coefficients from 145 to 120S, depending on the amount of sICAM-1 bound. The formation of 120S particles is faster and more extensive at a neutral pH than at an acidic pH. A large number of receptors (> 30) can bind to human rhinovirus 3 without disruption. Disruption by sICAM-1 of rhinovirus that yields 80S particles is strongly temperature dependent and is antagonized by a low pH. Interestingly, sICAM-1 remains bound to the viral capsid after RNA is released, although in smaller amounts than those observed for the native virus. We have found heterogeneity both between and within 80S particle preparations in the VP4 content and number of bound receptors. The ability of the virus to remain bound to its receptor during the uncoating process may facilitate the transport of the viral genome into the cytoplasm in vivo.
Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), a member of the Ig superfamily originally identified on activated endothelium, binds to the integrin very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), also known as alpha 4 beta 1 or CD49d/CD29, to support cell-cell adhesion. Studies based on cell adhesion to two alternatively spliced forms of VCAM-1 or to chimeric molecules generated from them and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) have demonstrated two VLA-4 binding sites on the predominate form of VCAM-1. Here, we studied VLA-4-dependent adhesion of the lymphoid tumor cell line Ramos to cells expressing wild type and mutant forms of VCAM-1. Results based on domain deletion mutants demonstrated the existence and independence of two VLA-4-binding sites located in the first and fourth domains of VCAM-1. Results based on amino acid substitution mutants demonstrated that residues within a linear sequence of six amino acids found in both domain 1 and 4 were required for VLA-4 binding to either domain. Five of these amino acids represent a conserved motif also found in ICAM domains. We propose that integrin binding to these Ig-like domains depends on residues within this conserved motif. Specificity of integrin binding to Ig-like domains may be regulated by a set of nonconserved residues distinct from the conserved motif.
Steel (SI) and white spotting (W) loci encode steel factor (c-kit ligand) and the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor, respectively. Mutations at these loci affect migration and differentiation of primordial germ cells, neural crest-derived melanoblasts, and hematopoietic cells. In these processes, cell adhesion molecules are hypothesized to be crucial. We have examined the role of steel factor and c-kit in cell-extracellular matrix adhesion using bone marrow-derived mast cells as a model system. Steel factor stimulates mast cells to bind to fibronectin and, to a lesser extent, to vitronectin, whereas interleukin-3 and interleukin-4, which are also mast cell growth factors, do not. Activation of adhesiveness is transient, occurs at concentrations of steel factor 100-fold lower than required for growth stimulation, and requires the integrin VLA-5. Mast cells from c-kit mutant mice adhere to fibronectin on stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), but not on stimulation with steel factor, indicating that stimulation of integrin adhesiveness requires activation of the c-kit protein tyrosine kinase. By contrast, c-kit mutant and wild-type mast cells adhere equally well to COS cells expressing membrane-anchored steel factor, showing that the kinase activity of c-kit is not required for adhesion directly mediated by c-kit. Our findings suggest that regulation of adhesion is an important biologic function of steel factor.