Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is a recently recognized autosomal-recessive trait characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation and wound healing, and abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells. Features of this disease are attributable to deficiency (or absence) of cell surface expression of a family of functionally and structurally related glycoproteins. These include Mac-1 (complement receptor type 3), lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and p150,95. Defective biosynthesis of the beta chain shared by each molecule (comprised of alpha 1 beta 1 complexes) represents the fundamental molecular basis of this disease. Recognition of the molecular pathogenesis of this disorder has allowed rich insights into the role of cellular adherence reactions in inflammation and host defense.
Previous studies have suggested that the leukocyte adhesion proteins Mac-1 and p150,95 are stored in a latent intracellular pool in neutrophils, and cellular fractionation studies have shown that Mac-1 is localized primarily in the peroxidase-negative specific granules. To determine the subcellular location of leukocyte adhesion receptors (LAR), we used immunocytochemical techniques on frozen thin sections of human blood leukocytes that had been incubated for peroxidase to mark the peroxidase-positive azurophil granules. To enhance the sensitivity of detection, polyclonal antibodies against immunoaffinity-purified p150,95 were raised in rabbits and absorbed with leukocytes from a patient deficient in this protein. The antiserum reacted with p150,95 and two other antigens with the same beta subunit, Mac-1 and lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). In neutrophils, we observed immunogold label for LAR predominantly on the membranes of peroxidase-negative granules, and in smaller amounts on the plasma and perinuclear membranes. In double-label experiments, there was colocalization of LAR with lactoferrin in some of the peroxidase-negative granules. We conclude that the latent pool of LAR resides in the membranes of peroxidase-negative granules. A significant increase in label on the plasma membrane of neutrophils stimulated with PMA is consistent with secretion of LAR to the exterior of the cell during degranulation. While LFA-1 appears very early in neutrophil maturation, it is becoming clear that Mac-1 and p150,95 are upregulated from an intracellular storage pool of peroxidase-negative granules that appear during the myelocyte stage of differentiation. Further studies are indicated to determine the significance of these proteins on the plasma membrane of two other granulocytes, eosinophils and basophils.
Recent study of human thymocyte-thymic epithelial (TE) cell interactions has demonstrated that thymocytes bind to TE cells, and a consequence of this binding is the provision of accessory cell signals by TE cells for phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced mature thymocyte activation. In this paper we report on studies of the molecules involved in TE cell-dependent mature thymocyte activation. TE-thymocyte interactions necessary for PHA-induced thymocyte activation were inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against the cluster of differentiation (CD)2 antigen on thymocytes and lymphocyte function-associated (LFA)-3 antigen on TE cells. Inhibition of TE accessory cell signals by antibodies against CD2 (alpha CD2) and LFA-3 (alpha LFA-3) antigens occurred early on during thymocyte activation and prevented thymocyte interleukin 2 receptor expression. Further, alpha CD2 and alpha LFA-3 inhibited PHA-induced thymocyte activation in whole thymic explant cultures suggesting a significant role of the CD2 and LFA-3 antigens in thymocyte activation when accessory cell signals for PHA-induced thymocyte triggering were delivered by cells within an intact thymic microenvironment.
We have found a human serum, E27, obtained from a multiply transfused patient with systemic lupus erythematosus, which immunoprecipitates the lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1). The immunoprecipitated molecules were identified as the LFA-1 alpha and beta chains by their comigration on SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, and by sequential clearance experiments. Serum E27 did not immunoprecipitate LFA-1 from autologous cells, though LFA-1 molecules were present. In contrast, serum E27 immunoprecipitated LFA-1 from most but not all normal donor lymphocytes. Thus, serum E27 defines two serological phenotypes of LFA-1. 95% of normal individuals tested exhibited the LFA-1 phenotype precipitated by serum E27. Serum E27 appears to be directed at determinants of the LFA-1 alpha-chain and not the beta-chain since it immunoprecipitated LFA-1 molecules but not the Mac-1 molecules. Additional evidence for the alpha chain specificity was provided by immunoprecipitation of mouse-human heterohybridoma cells. LFA-1 was immunoprecipitated by serum E27 from mouse-human heterohybridoma cells expressing the human alpha-chain, not from a hybrid cell line expressing the human beta-chain. Together these findings demonstrate an antigenic polymorphism of the human LFA-1 alpha-chain molecule.
We have isolated the cDNA for human lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3), the ligand of the T lymphocyte CD2 molecule. The identity of the clones was established by comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence to the LFA-3 NH2-terminal and tryptic peptide sequences. The cDNA defines a mature protein of 222 amino acids that structurally resembles typical membrane-anchored proteins. An extracellular domain with six N-linked glycosylation sites is followed by a hydrophobic putative transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic domain. The mature glycoprotein is estimated to be 44-68% carbohydrate. Southern blots of human genomic DNA indicate that only one gene codes for human LFA-3. Northern blot analysis demonstrates that the LFA-3 mRNA of 1.3 kb is widely distributed in human tissues and cell lines.
Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is a leukocyte cell surface glycoprotein that promotes intercellular adhesion in immunological and inflammatory reactions. It is an alpha beta complex that is structurally related to receptors for extracellular matrix components, and thus belongs to the integrin family. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) is a distinct cell surface glycoprotein. Its broad distribution, regulated expression in inflammation, and involvement in LFA-1-dependent cell-cell adhesion have suggested that ICAM-1 may be a ligand for LFA-1. We have purified ICAM-1 and incorporated it into artificial supported lipid membranes. LFA-1+ but not LFA-1- cells bound to ICAM-1 in the artificial membranes, and the binding could be specifically inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 treatment of the membranes or by anti-LFA-1 treatment of the cells. The cell binding to ICAM-1 required metabolic energy production, an intact cytoskeleton, and the presence of Mg2+ and was temperature dependent, characteristics of LFA-1- and ICAM-1-dependent cell-cell adhesion.
In this study we have used cells expressing LFA-3 or T11TS, the human and sheep forms of the ligand of CD2, as well as the purified LFA-3 and T11TS molecules themselves to study their effects on T cell activation via the CD2-mediated "alternative pathway". Sheep red blood cells, which bind to CD2 via T11TS in E-rosette formation, and human autologous monocytes, which express the LFA-3 molecule, both induce proliferation of resting T cells in the presence of per se submitogenic concentrations of anti-T11(2) plus anti-T11(3) monoclonal antibodies (mAb). This effect is blocked by mAb to LFA-3, T11TS and CD2 known to inhibit CD2-ligand interaction. In addition, purified LFA-3 and T11TS, when added at ng amounts to cultures containing submitogenic concentrations of anti-T11(2 + 3) mAb, are also strongly mitogenic for resting human T cells. Thus, both LFA-3 and T11TS are potent co-stimulators of the alternative pathway of T cell activation but by themselves do not provide a mitogenic signal. This finding is discussed with regard to a physiological role of CD2-LFA-3 interaction in T cell activation.
CD2 is a T lymphocyte glycoprotein that functions in adhesion of T lymphocytes and also as a putative receptor for activation signals. Functional data suggest that LFA-3, a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein, may be the biological ligand of CD2. We have purified LFA-3 from human erythrocytes and characterized the purified protein functionally. LFA-3 bound specifically to CD2+ cells, and this binding was inhibited by CD2 mAb. Conversely, purified LFA-3 inhibited binding of CD2 mAb to cells, and the concentration required for this effect suggests that LFA-3 half-saturated CD2 at 1-5 nM LFA-3. Purified LFA-3 inhibited rosetting of human and sheep erythrocytes with CD2+ T lymphoma cells and T lymphocytes, and mediated aggregation of a CD2+ T lymphoma cell line. Purified LFA-3 reconstituted into planar membranes mediated efficient CD2-dependent adhesion of T lymphoblasts. These data demonstrate that LFA-3 is a ligand for CD2 and that LFA-3 can mediate T lymphocyte adhesion.
CD2, also known as LFA-2, T11, and the E rosette receptor, is a T lymphocyte surface protein functionally important in adhesion to target cells and T cell triggering. LFA-3 is a widely distributed cell surface protein that functions in adhesion on target cells. We find that LFA-3 is expressed on human E, and that CD2 is a receptor for LFA-3 that mediates T cell adhesion to human E. Pretreatment of T lymphocytes with CD2 mAb or of E with LFA-3 mAb inhibits rosetting. Purified CD2 molecules bind to human E and inhibit rosetting. 125I-CD2 binding to E is inhibited by LFA-3 mAb; reciprocally, binding of LFA-3 mAb to human E is inhibited by pretreatment with purified CD2. Higher concentrations of CD2 aggregate human E; aggregation is inhibited by mAb to LFA-3.
Previous studies have shown that the purified T lymphocyte glycoprotein, cluster differentiation 2 (CD2) (also known as T11, lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-2, and the erythrocyte (E) rosette receptor) interacts with the LFA-3 molecule on human E. We have examined the interaction of the purified CD2 molecule with the T11 target structure (T11TS) molecule on sheep E, and compared the two interactions. Purified, 125I-labeled CD2 bound to sheep E and the binding was inhibited by anti-T11TS monoclonal antibody (mAb). Reciprocally, the binding of T11TS mAb to sheep E was inhibited by pretreatment of sheep E with purified CD2. High concentrations of purified CD2 aggregated sheep E, possibly by inserting into the membrane, and the aggregation was inhibited by T11TS mAb. The affinity and number of binding sites for purified CD2 on sheep and human E was found to be similar, with Ka of 9 X 10(7)/M and 6 X 10(7)/M and 9800 and 8300 CD2 binding sites/E, respectively. Thus, the human T lymphocyte CD2 molecule is a receptor that cross-reacts between LFA-3 on human E and T11TS on sheep E, suggesting that LFA-3 and T11TS are functionally homologous ligands. As measured by saturation mAb binding, there are 8100 and 3900 ligand molecules/sheep and human E, respectively. Human and sheep E have surface areas of 145 and 54 micron 2, respectively. The 3.2- to 5.6-fold higher ligand density on sheep E appears to account for the ability of sheep but not human E to rosette with certain types of human T lymphocytes.
T11 target structure (T11TS) and lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA) 3 are the cell-surface glycoproteins on sheep and human erythrocytes (E) binding to cluster differentiation 2 (the E-receptor) on T cells in E rosette formation. Here we show that this functional cross-reactivity is most likely due to a structural homology of these molecules. A rabbit antiserum to sheep T11TS is shown to cross-react with LFA-3 in several independent assays: (a) rabbit anti-T11TS antiserum blocks the formation of E rosettes by human T cells with both autologous and xenogeneic (sheep) E by binding to the respective E; (b) the antiserum blocks the binding of anti-LFA-3 monoclonal antibody to human E; and (c) it reacts with purified LFA-3 in Western blotting. Together, these findings demonstrate that T11TS on sheep E and LFA-3 on human E are serologically related, providing further support for the notion that T11TS and LFA-3 are the sheep and human forms of the same cell interaction molecule.
Monocytes were stimulated to increase their cell surface quantity of leukocyte adhesion proteins p150,95 and Mac-1 by the chemoattractant formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, or other mediators such as platelet-derived growth factor, tumor necrosis factor, C5a, and leukotriene B4. Dose-response curves indicated variations in the sensitivity of monocytes and granulocytes to these mediators. These increases were independent of protein synthesis and half-maximal at 2 min. Human alveolar and murine peritoneal macrophages, cells that had previously diapedised, could not be induced to upregulate Mac-1 or p150,95. Detergent permeabilization studies in monocytes indicated that these proteins were stored in internal latent pools, which were reduced upon stimulation. Electron microscopy utilizing rabbit antiserum against p150,95 revealed these proteins on the plasma membrane, and in intracellular vesicles and peroxidase negative granules. Together with other functional studies, these findings suggest that the mobilization of Mac-1 and p150,95 from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane regulates the monocyte's ability to adhere and diapedese.
CD2 (known also as T11 (ref. 1), LFA-2 (ref. 2) and the erythrocyte rosette receptor (ref. 3] is a functionally important T lymphocyte surface glycoprotein of relative molecular mass 50,000 to 58,000 (Mr 50-58 K) which appears early in thymocyte ontogeny and is present on all mature T cells. Monoclonal antibodies to CD2 inhibit cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing by binding to the T lymphocyte and blocking adhesion to the target cell. Such antibodies also inhibit T helper cell responses including antigen-stimulated proliferation, interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion, and IL-2 receptor expression. Certain combinations of monoclonal antibodies to CD2 epitopes trigger proliferation of peripheral blood T lymphocytes, cytotoxic effector function and expression of IL-2 receptors by thymocytes, resulting in thymocyte proliferation in the presence of exogenous IL-2 (ref. 11). These findings suggest that CD2 can function in signalling as well as being an adhesion molecule. To understand the role of CD2 in T-cell adhesion and activation, it is essential to define its natural ligand. Our previous observation that purified CD2 inhibits rosetting of T lymphocytes with sheep erythrocytes and can be absorbed by sheep erythrocytes suggested it also might bind with detectable affinity to human cells. We now report that CD2 binds to a cell-surface antigen known as lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 (LFA-3) with high affinity, and can mediate adhesion of lymphoid cells via interaction with LFA-3.
With the use of cultured human thymic epithelial (TE) cells, we have previously shown that thymocytes bind to TE cells in suspension in a rosette-forming assay. To identify cell surface molecules involved in human TE-thymocyte rosette formation, we assayed a large panel of monoclonal antibodies for their ability to inhibit rosette formation. We found anti-CD-2 (LFA-2, T11), and anti-LFA-3 antibodies all inhibited binding of TE cells to thymocytes. By using indirect immunofluorescence assays, we determined that cultured TE cells were 90% LFA-3 positive and CD-2 negative, whereas thymocytes were 10% LFA-3 positive and 98% CD-2 positive. Pretreatment of TE cells with anti-LFA-3 but not anti-LFA-2 inhibited TE-thymocyte binding. In contrast, pretreatment of thymocytes with anti-CD-2 but not anti-LFA-3 antibodies inhibited TE-thymocyte binding. Thus TE cell-thymocyte binding is blocked by antibodies to the CD-2 (T11) antigen on thymocytes and by an antibody to the LFA-3 antigen on TE cells. Because the CD-2 antigen has been implicated in T cell activation, these data suggest that a natural ligand for T cell activation via the CD-2 molecule is present on human thymic epithelial cells.
The involvement of the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) membrane molecule in cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) interactions with lymphoid target cells was investigated using CTL clones derived from two patients with a heritable deficiency of LFA-1. LFA-1 surface expression on the CTL clones was 1% of the normal level of LFA-1, unchanged with prolonged culture, and identical on 14 different CTL clones. The function of the LFA-1 molecule was addressed using the LFA-1-deficient CTL clones and LFA-1-deficient lymphoid target cells. The lytic activity of the LFA-1-deficient CTL clones was 43% of control when tested against a target cell line expressing normal levels of LFA-1 and less than 10% of control when tested against an LFA-1-deficient target cell line. These results demonstrate a direct involvement of LFA-1 in CTL-mediated cytolysis and suggest a more general dependence on LFA-1 in lymphoid cell-cell interactions.