IFN-gamma can induce the expression of both class II histocompatibility antigens (Ia) and the lymphocyte function associated (LFA)-1 antigen on murine peritoneal macrophages. We have examined the molecular changes which lead to altered expression of these two cell surface proteins to determine whether they are regulated by similar or independent mechanisms. While I-A antigen expression can be induced or enhanced by treatment of macrophages with either phorbol diesters and/or the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, these agents had no effect upon expression of LFA-1 under similar conditions. Macrophages from the A/J strain mouse exhibit a deficiency in their sensitivity to IFN-gamma which is seen in our studies as an inability of IFN-gamma to elevate I-A antigen expression. However, expression of I-A could be modulated in these cells by treatment with either phorbol diesters or A23187. In contrast, IFN-gamma could induce LFA-1 antigen on A/J derived macrophages and this was not affected by either phorbol or A23187. Thus these two antigens, despite coordinate expression in response to IFN-gamma in normal mouse strains, are clearly regulated independently. These results suggest that IFN-gamma generates at least two independent molecular events in macrophages which ultimately modulate the expression of cell surface proteins important to the performance of activated functions.
MAb directed at the alpha-subunits of Mac-1 (alpha M), LFA-1 (alpha L), p150,95 (alpha X), or their common beta-subunit were used to characterize the contributions of the Mac-1 glycoprotein family to granulocyte adherence reactions. Inhibitory effects of these MAb in incubation experiments with normal granulocytes indicated distinct adhesive contributions of each subunit. Significantly greater adherence, and inhibition of adherence by anti alpha M, alpha X, and beta MAb, was observed under chemotactic conditions designed to "up-regulate" the surface expression of the alpha M beta and alpha X beta complexes. Adherence to protein-coated glass and binding of albumin-coated latex beads were significantly inhibited by anti-beta greater than anti-alpha M (OKM-10, M1/70, LM2/1.6 and OKM-1) greater than anti-alpha X greater than anti-alpha L MAb, but no effects of anti-HLA, AB, or anti-CR-1 MAb were evident. A similar rank order of inhibition was observed in granulocyte aggregation assays in response to C5a, PMA, or f-Met-Leu-Phe. Significant inhibition of directed migration by anti-beta or anti-alpha M (OKM-1 or OKM-10) MAb was observed in subagarose but not Boyden chemotaxis assays; inhibition was dependent on a continuous cell exposure to anti-Mac-1 alpha or beta during the assay, suggesting that a continuum of new Mac-1 expression is required for directed translocation. Phagocytosis of Oil-Red-O paraffin or zymosan selectively opsonized with C3-derived ligands was significantly inhibited by anti-alpha M MAb (OKM-10 greater than LM2/1.6 greater than M1/70 greater than OKM-1) or by combinations of anti-alpha M + anti-CR-1 MAb, but only minimal inhibitory effects of anti-beta MAb and no effects of anti-alpha L or anti-alpha X MAb were seen. Similarly, complement-dependent phagocytosis-associated lactoferrin release, ingestion, and intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus 502A, and binding of iC3b-opsonized SRBC, were significantly inhibited by anti-alpha M (OKM-10, M1/70) or combinations of anti-alpha M + anti-CR-1 MAb, but not by anti-beta, alpha L, or alpha X MAb. Notably, none of the anti-Mac-1 MAb demonstrated inhibitory effects in assays of adherence-independent functions including shape change, specific f-Met-Leu-3H-Phe binding, O-2 generation, chemiluminescence evolution, or lactoferrin release in response to PMA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Membrane and intracellular processing of the LFA-1 macromolecular complex, known to be involved in cytolytic function of T lymphocytes, was investigated in a child with recurrent bacterial infections, impaired natural killer activity, T cell-mediated lymphocytolysis and absent adhesion and migration of phagocytic cells. Monoclonal antibodies to the LFA-1 alpha and beta subunits, able to precipitate the LFA-1 alpha, 180-kDa chain, the p151 chain and beta 94-kDa chain (shared by both alpha chains), were used in immunoprecipitation studies of patient and control phytohemagglutinin-blasts. Neither of the alpha chains nor the beta chain were found in precipitates obtained from 125I-surface-labeled patient cells in contrast to controls. However, the precursor of the LFA-1 alpha chain, a 170-kDa polypeptide, was identified in lysates of biosynthetically labeled patients' cells. These results suggest that the defective membrane expression of the LFA-1 complex may be secondary to the absence of the mature beta chain.
We have detected a significant increase in the levels of pp60c-src kinase activity associated with the differentiation of myeloid cell lines HL-60 and U-937. The induction of pp60c-src kinase activity becomes apparent approximately 14 hr after the addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and increases 20-fold by 72 hr. The enhanced kinase activity can be accounted for by elevated levels of c-src protein in the differentiated cells. When nonleukemic bone marrow cells were examined, myeloid progenitor cells exhibited a low level of pp60c-src kinase activity. As these cells are allowed to differentiate in culture, the resulting adherent monocytes are as high in pp60c-src kinase activity as HL-60 cells induced to differentiate into monocytes. A strong correlation is found between the levels of pp60c-src kinase activity and the degree of monocytic differentiation of the cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Our findings suggest that the activation of pp60c-src kinase activity is a normal physiological event associated with myeloid differentiation.
Homotypic adhesion by phorbol ester-stimulated lymphocytes requires LFA-1 and Mg+2 and does not involve like-like interactions between LFA-1 molecules on adjacent cells. The latter finding suggested that a second molecule, distinct from LFA-1, also participates in LFA-1-dependent adhesion. The identification of such a molecule was the object of this investigation. After immunization with LFA-1-deficient EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells, a MAb was obtained that inhibits phorbol ester-stimulated aggregation of LFA-1+ EBV lines. This MAb defines a novel cell surface molecule, which is designated intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). ICAM-1 is distinct from LFA-1 in both cell distribution and structure. In SDS-PAGE, ICAM-1 isolated from JY cells is a single chain of Mr = 90,000. As shown by MAb inhibition, ICAM-1 participates in phorbol ester-stimulated adhesion reactions of B lymphocyte and myeloid cell lines and T lymphocyte blasts. However, aggregation of one T lymphocyte cell line (SKW-3) was inhibited by LFA-1 but not ICAM-1 MAb. It is proposed that ICAM-1 may be a ligand in many, but not all, LFA-1-dependent adhesion reactions.
The Mac-1, LFA-1 (lymphocyte function-associated 1), p150,95 family of glycoproteins, which share a common beta subunit of Mr 95 000, are of widespread importance in leucocyte adhesion reactions. This paper focuses on the role of this glycoprotein family in granulocyte and monocyte adhesion and chemotaxis in vitro, and in migration into inflammatory sites in vivo. Most findings have been made with granulocytes, but results with monocytes are similar. Some studies have used leucocytes from patients exhibiting a severe or moderate deficiency in expression of this glycoprotein family, which is secondary to a defect in the common beta subunit. Patients are susceptible to bacterial infections and have defective pus formation and Rebuck skin-window tests, despite chronic granulocytosis. Granulocytes from such patients exhibit defective adherence to serum albumin and fibronectin-coated glass or plastic, defective orientation and directed migration in response to chemoattractants, and are defective in chemoattractant-stimulated aggregation and hyperadherence. Antibodies to the common beta subunit, to the Mac-1 alpha subunit, and to a lesser extent to the LFA-1 and p150,95 alpha subunits, inhibit many of the same functional responses by normal cells. In normal granulocytes and monocytes chemoattractants stimulate a five-fold increase in Mac-1 and p150,95 surface expression, by mobilization of a latent, presumably intracellular, pool. Cells from patients are deficient in up-regulation of these molecules but show normal up-regulation of other surface receptors, degranulation and oxidative burst. The hypothesis is presented that Mac-1 and p150,95 regulate or directly mediate the increase in granulocyte and monocyte adhesivity, which is essential for diapedesis, chemotaxis and migration into inflammatory sites.
We have measured growth of West Nile virus in mouse primary peritoneal macrophages (resident, thioglycolate elicited, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG activated) and in macrophagelike (P338D1) and nonmacrophage (L929, PS clone D) cell lines infected in the absence or presence of specific antibodies (immunoglobulin G ([IgG], IgM), and complement. Monoclonal antibodies directed against Fc receptors (IgG1/2b, 2.4G2) and type 3 complement receptors (Mac-1) were used to define the role of each receptor. Virus yield depended on a balance between enhancement and neutralization and was influenced by the physiologic state of the macrophage, the receptor pathway of viral entry, the mouse strain and age of donor. BCG-activated macrophages displayed a greater ability to restrict West Nile virus than nonactivated cells only in the presence of antiviral IgM, with or without complement; the Fc receptors for various classes of IgG mediated striking enhancement. These studies identify some of the complex innate and acquired factors that determine the interaction between West Nile virus and primary macrophages in vitro.
The complement receptor type 3 (CR3) mediates phagocytosis and degradation of iC3b-opsonized particles by macrophages and granulocytes. The CR3 is identical to the Mac-1 molecule, which is composed of two non-covalently associated glycoprotein subunits, alpha M of Mr 170,000 and beta of Mr 95,000. Patients with recurring, life-threatening bacterial infections have been identified who have moderate (95%) or severe (greater than 99%) deficiency of Mac-1 and of the related LFA-1 and p150,95 molecules. The primary defect is in the shared beta subunit of these molecules. Patient leukocytes are not only deficient in CR3 but in a wide variety of adhesion-dependent functions, including granulocyte chemotaxis, adherence to surfaces, and aggregation. Monoclonal antibodies to the Mac-1 alpha subunit and to the beta subunit block these functions. The hypothesis will be advanced that Mac-1 functions dually as the CR3 and in 'nonspecific' adherence reactions. Adherence functions are stimulated in normal granulocytes by chemoattractants, which also induce a rapid 5-fold increase in Mac-1 and p150,95 on the cell surface. It is proposed that absence of Mac-1 and p150,95 expression and upregulation by patient granulocytes is causally related to their inability to extravasate and migrate into inflammatory sites.
Lymphocyte function associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is a leukocyte cell adhesion protein. We have studied a novel human immunodeficiency disease in which LFA-1 and two other proteins which share the same beta subunit are lacking from the surface of leukocytes. The basis of the inherited defect in cell surface expression of both the alpha and beta subunits of LFA-1 was determined by somatic cell fusion of patient or normal human cells with an LFA-1+ mouse T cell line. Human LFA-1 alpha and beta subunits from normal cells could associate with mouse LFA-1 subunits to form interspecies hybrid alpha beta complexes. Surface expression of the alpha but not the beta subunit of patient cells was rescued by the formation of interspecies complexes. The findings show that the LFA-1 alpha subunit in genetically deficient cells is competent for surface expression in the presence of an appropriate beta subunit, and suggest that the genetic lesion affects the beta subunit. The human LFA-1 alpha and beta subunits were mapped to chromosomes 16 and 21, respectively. The genetic defect is inferred to be on chromosome 21.
The lymphocyte function-associated (LFA)-1 molecule is expressed on certain populations of macrophages that have an augmented capacity to capture tumor cells. Accordingly, we analyzed the role of LFA-1 in the establishment of such cell-cell interactions. F(ab')2 fragments of the M17/4, anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) inhibited the interaction between activated macrophages and tumor cells by up to 80% in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-LFA-1 MAb reduced (between 55 to 79%) the number of P815, LSTRA, or EL-4 tumor cells bound to trypsin-sensitive structures on bacillus Calmette Guerin activated macrophages. The inhibition appeared selective, because a F(ab')2 fragment of anti-Mac-1 did not inhibit such binding. Inhibition of tumor cell capture could be observed as soon as 15 min after the onset of the cell-cell interaction between activated macrophages and tumor cells. Optimal inhibition occurred when both tumor targets and macrophages were precoated with the MAb. Although P815, LSTRA, EL-4, and BW5147 tumor cells all expressed LFA-1, only the first three but not BW5147 cells were bound by activated macrophages. Furthermore, endotoxin-pulsed macrophages elicited by thioglycollate broth expressed the LFA-1 antigen but did not exhibit selective tumor cell capture. Finally, anti-LFA-1 inhibited the development of weak into strong binding. Taken together, the results suggest that LFA-1 molecules can participate in the interaction between activated macrophages and neoplastic cells.
Translation in vitro of mRNA and immunoprecipitation with specific rabbit antisera showed that the unglycosylated precursor polypeptides of the mouse Mac-1 and lymphocyte function associated antigen (LFA-1) alpha subunits are 130,000 Mr and 140,000 Mr, respectively. Furthermore, polysomes purified by using anti-Mac-1 IgG yielded a similar major product of translation in vitro of Mr = 130,000. The Mac-1 and LFA-1 alpha subunit translation products are immunologically noncross-reactive, showing that differences between these related proteins are not due to post-translational processing. Mac-1 and LFA-1 alpha subunits could only be in vitro translated from mRNA from cell lines the surfaces of which express the corresponding Mac-1 and LFA-1 alpha-beta complexes, showing tissue-specific expression is regulated at the mRNA level. The glycosylation of Mac-1 was examined by both translation in vitro in the presence of dog pancreas microsomes and by biosynthesis in vivo and treatment with tunicamycin, endoglycosidase H, and the deglycosylating agent trifluoromethane sulfonic acid. High mannose oligosaccharides are added to the Mac-1 alpha and beta polypeptide backbones of Mr = 130,000 and 72,000, respectively, to yield precursors of Mr = 164,000 and 91,000, respectively. The alpha and beta subunit precursors are then processed with partial conversion of high mannose to complex type carbohydrate to yield the mature subunits of Mr = 170,000 and 95,000, respectively.
We have used the quantitative binding of murine monoclonal antibodies to the surface of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells to study the responses of HUVE cells to three different immune mediators: interleukin 1 (IL 1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and immune interferon (IFN-gamma). Antibody H4/18, reactive with an endothelial cell-specific activation antigen, does not bind to unstimulated HUVE cells but shows rapidly and transiently inducible binding (peak 4 to 6 hr) to cells stimulated by IL 1 or TNF that declines to basal levels by 24 hr, even in the continued presence of mediator. Binding of H4/18 is unaffected by IFN-gamma. Antibody RR1/1, reactive with intercellular adhesion molecule 1, binds to unstimulated HUVE cells, but binding is rapidly increased (plateau 24 hr) after stimulation by IL 1 or TNF and slowly increased (over several days) by IFN-gamma. In contrast to H4/18 binding, the increase in RR1/1 binding is sustained in the continued presence of mediator. Antibody W6/32, reactive with HLA-A,B antigens, binds to unstimulated HUVE cells and shows gradually progressive increases (over several days) in binding upon treatment with IFN-gamma or TNF. These observations demonstrate that HUVE cells show distinct but overlapping patterns of antigenic modulation in response to three different lymphokines, and suggest that the "activation" of endothelial cells observed in situ may represent a complex integration of several lymphokine-mediated signals.
Monoclonal antibodies specific for p150,95, a third member of the Mac-1 and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) leukocyte adhesion protein family, have been identified and used to study the biochemistry and cellular expression of p150,95. p150,95 is a noncovalently associated heterodimer containing alpha X and beta subunits of Mr = 150,000 and 95,000 respectively. Findings suggest that the p150,95 alpha X beta complex shares a common beta subunit with the alpha L beta LFA-1 and alpha M beta Mac-1 complexes. Co-precipitation experiments demonstrated identity between the p150,95 molecule precipitated by anti-beta MAb and by p150,95-specific MAb. Patients with a previously demonstrated genetic deficiency in Mac-1 and LFA-1 fail to express p150,95. Deficiency of the Mac-1, LFA-1, and p150,95 alpha beta complexes on the surface of patient cells appears due to a defect in the common beta subunit. The lack of cross-reaction of p150,95-specific MAb with LFA-1 and Mac-1, which appear to utilize identical beta subunits, suggests that the determinant is specified by the alpha X rather than the beta subunit of p150,95. The data suggest that alpha X is yet a third member of a family of alpha subunit proteins that associate with a common beta subunit, are differentially regulated in leukocyte differentiation, and function in adhesion reactions. p150,95 is normally expressed on blood monocytes and granulocytes. Chemoattractants such as f-Met-Leu-Phe stimulate a rapid, fivefold increase in surface expression that is not dependent on protein synthesis and appears to reflect mobilization of an intracellular latent pool. The intimate relation between the lack of chemoattractant-stimulated upregulation of p150,95 and Mac-1 by patient granulocytes and their failure to upregulate adhesiveness to these same stimuli in vitro, or to diapedese and migrate into inflammatory sites in vivo, is discussed.
A genomic clone coding for the alpha subunit of the mouse complement receptor type 3 and the cellular adhesion molecule Mac-1 has been isolated directly from a genomic library using synthetic oligonucleotide probes based on the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein. The identity of the clone has been established by DNA sequencing and in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA. The gene is present in a single copy in the murine genome. The region containing the amino-terminal exon has been sequenced. RNA gel blotting shows that the Mac-1 alpha-subunit mRNA is 6 kilobases in length. Mac-1 alpha-subunit mRNA is present in macrophages but not T lymphoma or L cells. During gamma interferon-stimulated maturation of the mouse premyelocytic cell line M1, Mac-1 alpha-subunit mRNA is induced. This corresponds with the tissue distribution of the Mac-1 alpha subunit, showing expression is regulated at least partially at the message level.
The lymphocyte function-associated-2 (LFA-2) molecule, equivalent to CD2 and the E rosette receptor, was purified by MAb affinity chromatography from the Jurkat T lymphoma cell line. Jurkat was selected for its high level of expression of 1.0 X 10(5) sites/cell. A two-site radioimmunometric assay was developed to monitor purification. From 50 g of packed cells, 230 micrograms of LFA-2 was obtained with 65% yield of antigenic activity with a purification factor of 13,000. A major component of 58,000 and 54,000 was obtained that corresponded to LFA-2 antigenic activity as shown by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. The doublet was resolved by 2D IEF-SDS-PAGE into components of pI = 5.5 and 5.6. Smaller amounts of lower Mr components were also seen. All these components appeared related by processing or proteolytic breakdown, as shown by Cleveland peptide mapping. The LFA-2 deoxycholate complex had an apparent Mr of 68,000 by gel filtration, suggesting it was monomeric. Purified LFA-2 inhibited rosetting of T lymphocytes with sheep E, and addition to preformed rosettes caused their disruption. Inhibitory activity was absorbed by sheep E. This is the first evidence that the CD2/LFA-2 molecule can directly bind to sheep E. Purified LFA-2 should be useful for the further biochemical and functional characterization of this molecule.
The regulation of Mac-1, LFA-1, and p150,95 expression during leukocyte differentiation was examined. LFA-1 was present on almost all cell types studied. Both Mac-1 and p150,95 were present on the more mature cells of the myelomonocytic series, but only p150,95 was detected on some B cell lines and cloned cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation of B chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells dramatically increased p150,95 expression. The resultant Mac-1, LFA-1, p150,95 phenotype resembled hairy cell leukemia, a B cell plasmacytoid leukemia. The promonocytic cell line U937 and the promyeloblastic cell line HL-60 expressed only LFA-1. Monocytic differentiation of U937 cells was stimulated by PMA, and induced the concomitant expression of Mac-1 and p150,95, with more p150,95 induced than Mac-1. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulation of U937 cells gave similar results. PMA-stimulated monocytic differentiation of the HL-60 cell line also induced expression of both Mac-1 and p150,95. The number of p150,95 molecules on PMA-stimulated U937 and HL-60 cells were 5 X 10(5) and 3 X 10(5), respectively. Retinoic acid stimulated myeloid differentiation of HL-60 cells and induced expression of both Mac-1 and p150,95. These cells acquired a Mac-1, LFA-1, p150,95 profile that resembled that of granulocytes, with more Mac-1 than p150,95 induced. GM-CSF stimulation of HL-60 cells induced a similar Mac-1 and p150,95 phenotype. The contributions of Mac-1, LFA-1, and p150,95 to aggregation of PMA-differentiated U937 cells were assessed. Monoclonal antibodies to the beta subunit and the LFA-1 alpha subunit, but not those to p150,95 or Mac-1 alpha subunit, inhibited this homotypic adherence.
Lymphocytes become adherent and aggregate after stimulation with phorbol esters such as PMA. Time-lapse video showed that aggregating cells were motile and exhibited vigorous pseudopodial movements. Adhesion sites were initiated between pseudopodia of neighboring cells, and then moved to the uropod. PMA-stimulated aggregation by EBV-transformed B cell lines, SKW-3 (a T cell line), differentiated U937 (a monocytic line), and blood lymphocytes was inhibited by mAbs to LFA-1. A number of different mAb to the LFA-1 alpha and beta subunits and F(ab')2 and Fab' fragments inhibited aggregation. Furthermore, lymphoblasts from normal individuals, but not from LFA-1-deficient patients, aggregated in response to PMA. These findings suggest LFA-1 is critically involved in stimulated lymphocyte adhesion. LFA-1 expression was not increased by PMA stimulation, showing that other mechanisms regulate LFA-1-dependent adherence. LFA-1-deficient patient cells were able to coaggregate with LFA-1+ cells, showing that aggregation is not mediated by like-like interactions between LFA-1 molecules on opposite cells. Aggregation was Mg+2-dependent, inhibited by cytochalasin B, and was reversed when LFA-1 mAb was added to preformed aggregates. Previous findings suggesting that LFA-1 is important in a wide variety of leukocyte functions are elucidated by this work, which shows that LFA-1 is a general leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, the activity of which is regulated by cell activation.